Louis Marcoussis, formerly Ludwig Casimir Ladislas Markus, (1878-1941) was a painter and engraver of Polish origin who lived in Paris for much of his life and became a French citizen. After studying law briefly in Warsaw he went to the Krako´w Academy of Fine Arts, where his teachers included Jan Stanislawski and Jozev Mehoffer. Moving to Paris in 1903, he spent a short time at the Acade´mie Julian under Jules Lefebvre. The first time a painting of his was shown in a major exhibition was at the Salon d'Automne in 1905, and over the next quarter-century his work was shown in many other important exhibitions, in particular at the Salon des Inde´pendants and the Salon des Tuileries. He drew cartoons for satirical journals, as he had earlier in Poland. In Paris he needed to earn his own living, and also took on other drawing and illustration work. In the cafe´s of Montmartre and Montparnasse he got to know Apollinaire, Braque, Degas, Picasso and many more artists and writers.