Jackson Hole Gallery Walkthrough 2022

PUBLISHED IN: Gallery Tours

Situated in the wild beauty of Jackson Hole, Wyoming, with National Parks as a stunning backdrop, Heather James Jackson has brought the highest caliber of artworks and services to the Intermountain West for over a decade.

Catering to the unique community that makes Jackson Hole an unparalleled destination for American culture and the outdoors, Heather James strives to provide an unmatched selection of artworks and white glove services for locals and visitors alike.

On May 15, 1886, a visual manifesto for a new art movement was born when Georges Seurat’s crowning achievement, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte was unveiled at the Eighth Impressionist Exhibition. Seurat can claim title as the original “Scientific Impressionist” working in a manner that came to be known as Pointillism or Divisionism. It was, however, his friend and the confidant, 24-year-old Paul Signac and their constant dialogue that led to a collaboration in understanding the physics of light and color and the style that emerged. Signac was an untrained, yet a blazingly talented, Impressionist painter whose temperament was perfectly suited to the rigor and discipline required to achieve the painstakingly laborious brushwork and color. Signac quickly assimilated the technique. He also bore witness to Seurat’s arduous two-year journey building myriad layers of unblended dots of color on the colossally-sized La Grande Jatte. Together, Signac, the brash extrovert, and Seurat, a secretive introvert, were about to subvert the course of Impressionism, and change the course of modern art.

PAUL SIGNAC

Led by a triumvirate of painters of the American Scene, Thomas Hart Benton, John Steuart Curry, and Grant Wood took on the task of exploring, defining, and celebrating the Midwest as a credible entity within the geographical, political, and mythological landscape of the United States. Their populist works were figurative and narrative-driven, and they gained widespread popularity among a Depression-weary American public. The landscapes Grant Wood painted, and the lithographs marketed by Associated American Artists were comforting reminders of traditional Midwestern values and the simplicity of country life. Yet, Wood's most iconic works, including American Gothic, were to be viewed through the lens of elusive narratives and witty ironies that reflect an artist who delighted in sharing his charming and humorous perspective on farm life. 
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<br>In 1930, Wood achieved national fame and recognition with American Gothic, a fictionalized depiction of his sister, Nan, and his family dentist. Frequently regarded as the most famous American painting of the twentieth century, to fully grasp American Gothic's essential nature, one must recognize Wood's profound connection to his Iowan roots, a bond that borders on a singular fixation and the often-brutal confrontation between the moral and cultural rigidity of Midwest isolationism and the standards that prevailed elsewhere in America. This war of values and morality became dominant throughout Wood's oeuvre. Their fascination with American Gothic may have mystified the public, but the story, told in the attitude of a farmer and his wife, is as lean and brittle as the pitchfork he carries. Their attitude, as defiant as it is confrontational, is an unflinching dare to uppity gallery-goers to judge their immaculate well-scrubbed farm. American Gothic became an overnight sensation, an ambiguous national icon often interpreted as a self-effacing parody of midwestern life. Yet it also served as an unflinching mirror to urban elite attitudes and their often-derisive view of heartland values and way of life. In Grant Wood's hands, the people of the Midwest have stiffened and soured, their rectitude implacable.
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<br>Portrait of Nan is Grant Wood's most intimate work. He may have been motivated to paint it to make amends for the significant scrutiny and harsh treatment his sister received as American Gothic's sternly posed female. Grant poured his heart into it as a sign of sibling love. Intent upon painting her as straightforward and simply as possible so as not to invite unintended interpretations, Wood's deep attachment to the portrait was significant enough for him to think of it as having irreplaceable value. When he moved from Cedar Rapids to Iowa City in 1935, he designed his entire living room around the work. It occupied the place of honor above the fireplace and was the only painting he refused to sell. 
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<br>The lithograph July Fifteenth, issued in 1938, proves his mystical vision of the Iowan heartland is anything but a pitchfork approach. Drawings assumed central importance in Wood's output, and this work is executed in meticulous detail, proving his drawings were at least as complex, if not more so, than his paintings. The surface of the present work takes on an elaborate, decorative rhythm, echoed throughout the land that is soft, verdant, and fertile. Structurally, it alludes in equal measure to the geometry of modern art and the decorative patterning of folk-art traditions. This is a magical place, a fulsome display of an idealized version of an eternal, lovely, and benign heartland. 
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<br>The Young Artist, an en plein air sketch, may have been produced during, or slightly after, what Wood called his "palette-knife stage" that consumed him in 1925. Having not yet traveled to Munich where, in 1928, he worked on a stain-glass window commission and came under the influence of the Northern Renaissance painters that sparked his interest in the compositional severity and detailed technique associated with his mature works, here, he worked quickly, and decisively. The view is from a hilltop at Kenwood Park that overlooks the Cedar River Valley near Cedar Rapids, where he built a house for his sister, Nan.

GRANT WOOD

Cottonwood Tree (Near Abiquiu), New Mexico (1943) by celebrated American artist Georgia O’Keeffe is exemplary of the airier, more naturalistic style that the desert inspired in her. O’Keeffe had great affinity for the distinctive beauty of the Southwest, and made her home there among the spindly trees, dramatic vistas, and bleached animal skulls that she so frequently painted. O’Keeffe took up residence at Ghost Ranch, a dude ranch twelve miles outside of the village of Abiquiú in northern New Mexico and painted this cottonwood tree around there. The softer style befitting this subject is a departure from her bold architectural landscapes and jewel-toned flowers.
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<br>The cottonwood tree is abstracted into soft patches of verdant greens through which more delineated branches are seen, spiraling in space against pockets of blue sky. The modeling of the trunk and delicate energy in the leaves carry forward past experimentations with the regional trees of the Northeast that had captivated O’Keeffe years earlier: maples, chestnuts, cedars, and poplars, among others. Two dramatic canvases from 1924, Autumn Trees, The Maple and The Chestnut Grey, are early instances of lyrical and resolute centrality, respectively. As seen in these early tree paintings, O’Keeffe exaggerated the sensibility of her subject with color and form.
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<br>In her 1974 book, O’Keeffe explained: “The meaning of a word— to me— is not as exact as the meaning of a color. Color and shapes make a more definite statement than words.” Her exacting, expressive color intrigued. The Precisionist painter Charles Demuth described how, in O’Keeffe’s work, “each color almost regains the fun it must have felt within itself on forming the first rainbow” (As quoted in C. Eldridge, Georgia O’Keeffe, New York, 1991, p. 33). As well, congruities between forms knit together her oeuvre. Subjects like hills and petals undulate alike, while antlers, trees, and tributaries correspond in their branching morphology.
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<br>The sinewy contours and gradated hues characteristic of O’Keeffe find an incredible range across decades of her tree paintings. In New Mexico, O’Keeffe returned to the cottonwood motif many times, and the seasonality of this desert tree inspired many forms. The vernal thrill of new growth was channeled into spiraling compositions like Spring Tree No.1 (1945). Then, cottonwood trees turned a vivid autumnal yellow provided a breathtaking compliment to the blue backdrop of Mount Pedernal. The ossified curves of Dead Cottonweed Tree (1943) contain dramatic pools of light and dark, providing a foil to the warm, breathing quality of this painting, Cottonwood Tree (Near Abiquiu). The aural quality of this feathered cottonwood compels a feeling guided by O’Keeffe’s use of form of color.

GEORGIA O'KEEFFE


<br>In Diego Rivera’s portrait of Enriqueta Dávila, the artist asserts a Mexicanidad, a quality of Mexican-ness, in the work along with his strong feelings towards the sitter. Moreover, this painting is unique amongst his portraiture in its use of symbolism, giving us a strong if opaque picture of the relationship between artist and sitter.
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<br>Enriqueta, a descendent of the prominent Goldbaum family, was married to the theater entrepreneur, José María Dávila. The two were close friends with Rivera, and the artist initially requested to paint Enriqueta’s portrait. Enriqueta found the request unconventional and relented on the condition that Rivera paints her daughter, Enriqueta “Quetita”. Rivera captures the spirit of the mother through the use of duality in different sections of the painting, from the floorboards to her hands, and even the flowers. Why the split in the horizon of the floorboard? Why the prominent cross while Enriqueta’s family is Jewish? Even her pose is interesting, showcasing a woman in control of her own power, highlighted by her hand on her hip which Rivera referred to as a claw, further complicating our understanding of her stature.
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<br>This use of flowers, along with her “rebozo” or shawl, asserts a Mexican identity. Rivera was adept at including and centering flowers in his works which became a kind of signature device. The flowers show bromeliads and roselles; the former is epiphytic and the latter known as flor de jamaica and often used in hibiscus tea and aguas frescas. There is a tension then between these two flowers, emphasizing the complicated relationship between Enriqueta and Rivera. On the one hand, Rivera demonstrates both his and the sitter’s Mexican identity despite the foreign root of Enriqueta’s family but there may be more pointed meaning revealing Rivera’s feelings to the subject. The flowers, as they often do in still life paintings, may also refer to the fleeting nature of life and beauty. The portrait for her daughter shares some similarities from the use of shawl and flowers, but through simple changes in gestures and type and placement of flowers, Rivera illuminates a stronger personality in Enriqueta and a more dynamic relationship as filtered through his lens.
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<br>A closer examination of even her clothing reveals profound meaning. Instead of a dress more in line for a socialite, Rivera has Enriqueta in a regional dress from Jalisco, emphasizing both of their Mexican identities. On the other hand, her coral jewelry, repeated in the color of her shoes, hints at multiple meanings from foreignness and exoticism to protection and vitality. From Ancient Egypt to Classical Rome to today, coral has been used for jewelry and to have been believed to have properties both real and symbolic. Coral jewelry is seen in Renaissance paintings indicating the vitality and purity of woman or as a protective amulet for infants. It is also used as a reminder, when paired with the infant Jesus, of his future sacrifice. Diego’s use of coral recalls these Renaissance portraits, supported by the plain background of the painting and the ribbon indicating the maker and date similar to Old Master works.
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<br>When combined in the portrait of Enriqueta, we get a layered and tense building of symbolism. Rivera both emphasizes her Mexican identity but also her foreign roots. He symbolizes her beauty and vitality but look closely at half of her face and it is as if Rivera has painted his own features onto hers. The richness of symbolism hints at the complex relationship between artist and sitter.

DIEGO RIVERA

WILLEM DE KOONING - Woman in a Rowboat - oil on paper laid on masonite - 47 1/2 x 36 1/4 in.

WILLEM DE KOONING

Alexander Calder was a key figure in the development of abstract sculpture and is renowned for his groundbreaking work in kinetic art; he is one of the most influential artists of the Twentieth Century. "Prelude to Man-Eater" is a delicately balanced standing sculpture that responds to air currents, creating a constantly changing and dynamic visual experience.
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<br>Calder's Standing Mobiles were a result of his continuous experimentation with materials, form, and balance. This Standing Mobile is a historically significant prelude to a larger work commissioned in 1945 by Alfred Barr, the first director of the Museum of Modern Art in New York. "Prelude to Maneater" is designed to be viewed from multiple angles, encouraging viewers to walk around and interact with it.
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<br>The present work is a formal study for Man-Eater With Pennant (1945), part of the permanent collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The work is also represented in "Sketches for Mobiles: Prelude to Man-Eater; Starfish; Octopus", which is in the permanent collection of the Harvard Fogg Museum.
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<br>Calder's mobiles and stabiles can be found in esteemed private collections and the collections of major museums worldwide, including the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, the Art Institute of Chicago, and the Tate Gallery in London among others.

ALEXANDER CALDER

<div>Having unwittingly inserted himself into the Pop Art conversation with his Great American Nude series, Tom Wesselmann spent the rest of his career explaining that his motivation was not to focus excessively on a subject matter or to generate social commentary but instead, to give form to what titillated him most as beautiful and exciting. His disembodied Mouth series of 1965 established that an image did not have to rely on extraneous elements to communicate meaning. But it was his follow-up performances with the Smoker series and its seductive, fetish allure that raised his standing among true sybarites everywhere. Apart from perceiving smoking as cool and chic, a painting such as Smoker #21 is the consummate celebration of Wesselmann’s abilities as a painter. Enticed by the undulating smoke, Wesselmann took great pains to accurately depict its sinuous movements and observe the momentary pauses that heightened his appreciation of its sensual nature. Like all of Wesselmann’s prodigious scaled artworks, Smoker #21 has the commanding presence of an altarpiece. It was produced during long hours in his impressive Manhattan studio in Cooper Square, and the result is one of sultry dynamism — evocative, sensual, alluring, sleek, luscious, and perhaps, even sinister — a painting that flaunts his graphic supremacy and potent realism varnished with his patented sex appeal flair.<br>
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<br>Tom Wesselmann expanded upon the success of his Great American Nudes by focusing on singular features of his subjects and began painting his Mouth series in 1965. In 1967, Wesselmann’s friend Peggy Sarno paused for a cigarette while modeling for Wesselmann’s Mouth series, inspiring his Smoker paintings. The whisps of smoke were challenging to paint and required Wesselmann to utilize photographs as source material to capture the smoke’s ephemeral nature properly. The images here show Wesselmann photographing his friend, the screenwriter Danièle Thompson, as she posed for some of Wesselmann’s source images.</div>

TOM WESSELMANN

Trained as a woodcarver, Emil Nolde was almost 30 years old before he made his first paintings. The early paintings resembled his drawings and woodcuts: grotesque figures with bold lines and strong contrasts. The style was new, and it inspired the nascent movement Die Brücke (The Bridge), whose members invited Nolde to join them in 1906.  But, it was not until the garden became his locus operandi by 1915 that he built upon his mastery of contrasting luminosities to focus on color as the supreme means of expression.  Later, Nolde claimed “color is strength, strength is life,” and he could not have better characterized why his flower paintings reinvigorate our perception of color.
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<br>Much of the strength of Nolde’s dramatic, Wagnerian-like color sensibilities is the effect of staging primary colors, such as the deep reds and golden yellows of Sonnenblumen, Abend II, against a somber palette. The contrast highlights and deepens the luminosity of the flowers, not just visually, but emotionally as well. In 1937, when Nolde’s art was rejected, confiscated, and defiled, his paintings were paraded as “degenerate art” throughout Nazi Germany in dimly lit galleries. Despite that treatment, Nolde’s status as a degenerate artist gave his art more breathing space because he seized the opportunity to produce more than 1,300 watercolors, which he called “unpainted pictures.” No novice in handling watercolor, his free-flowing style of painting had been a hallmark of his highly-charge, transparent washes since 1918. Sonnenblumen, Abend II, painted in 1944, is a rare wartime oil. He let his imagination run wild with this work, and his utilization of wet-on-wet techniques heightened the drama of each petal.
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<br>Nolde’s intense preoccupation with color and flowers, particularly sunflowers, reflects his continuing devotion to van Gogh.  He was aware of van Gogh as early as 1899 and, during the 1920s and early 1930s, visited several exhibitions of the Dutch artist’s work.  They shared a profound love of nature. Nolde’s dedication to expression and the symbolic use of color found fullness in the sunflower subject, and it became a personal symbol for him, as it did for Van Gogh.

EMIL NOLDE

<div>In the mid-1920s, Rufino Tamayo embarked on the crucial development phase as a sophisticated, contemporary colorist. In New York, he encountered the groundbreaking works of Picasso, Braque, and Giorgio de Chirico, along with the enduring impact of Cubism. Exploring painterly and plastic values through subjects sourced from street scenes, popular culture, and the fabric of daily life, his unique approach to color and form began to take shape. It was a pivotal shift toward cosmopolitan aesthetics, setting him apart from the nationalist fervor championed by the politically charged narratives of the Mexican Muralist movement.  By focusing on the vitality of popular culture, he captured the essential Mexican identity that prioritized universal artistic values over explicit social and political commentary. The approach underscored his commitment to redefining Mexican art on the global stage and highlighted his innovative contributions to the modernist dialogue. </div>
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<br><div>Like Cézanne, Tamayo elevated the still life genre to some of its most beautifully simple expressions. Yet high sophistication underlies the ease with which Tamayo melds vibrant Mexican motifs with the avant-garde influences of the School of Paris. As "Naturaleza Muerta" of 1935 reveals, Tamayo refused to lapse into the mere decoration that often characterizes the contemporary School of Paris art with which his work draws comparisons. Instead, his arrangement of watermelons, bottles, a coffee pot, and sundry items staged within a sobering, earthbound tonality and indeterminant, shallow space recalls Tamayo's early interest in Surrealism. An overlayed square matrix underscores the contrast between the organic subjects of the painting and the abstract, intellectualized structure imposed upon them, deepening the interpretation of the artist's exploration of visual perception and representation. In this way, the grid serves to navigate between the visible world and the underlying structures that inform our understanding of it, inviting viewers to consider the interplay between reality and abstraction, sensation and analysis.</div>

RUFINO TAMAYO

Alexander Calder executed a surprising number of oil paintings during the second half of the 1940s and early 1950s. By this time, the shock of his 1930 visit to Mondrian’s studio, where he was impressed not by the paintings but by the environment, had developed into an artistic language of Calder’s own. So, as Calder was painting The Cross in 1948, he was already on the cusp of international recognition and on his way to winning the XX VI Venice Biennale’s grand prize for sculpture in 1952. Working on his paintings in concert with his sculptural practice, Calder approached both mediums with the same formal language and mastery of shape and color.
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<br>Calder was deeply intrigued by the unseen forces that keep objects in motion. Taking this interest from sculpture to canvas, we see that Calder built a sense of torque within The Cross by shifting its planes and balance. Using these elements, he created implied motion suggesting that the figure is pressing forward or even descending from the skies above. The Cross’s determined momentum is further amplified by details such as the subject’s emphatically outstretched arms, the fist-like curlicue vector on the left, and the silhouetted serpentine figure.
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<br>Calder also adopts a strong thread of poetic abandon throughout The Cross’s surface. It resonates with his good friend Miró’s hieratic and distinctly personal visual language, but it is all Calder in the effective animation of this painting’s various elements. No artist has earned more poetic license than Calder, and throughout his career, the artist remained convivially flexible in his understanding of form and composition. He even welcomed the myriad interpretations of others, writing in 1951, “That others grasp what I have in mind seems unessential, at least as long as they have something else in theirs.”
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<br>Either way, it is important to remember that The Cross was painted shortly after the upheaval of the Second World War and to some appears to be a sobering reflection of the time. Most of all, The Cross proves that Alexander Calder loaded his brush first to work out ideas about form, structure, relationships in space, and most importantly, movement.

ALEXANDER CALDER

Widely recognized as one of the most consequential artists of our time, Gerhard Richters career now rivals that of Picasso's in terms of productivity and genius. The multi-faceted subject matter, ranging from slightly out-of-focus photographic oil paintings to Kelly-esque grid paintings to his "squeegee" works, Richter never settles for repeating the same thought- but is constantly evolving his vision. Richter has been honored by significant retrospective exhibitions, including the pivotal 2002 show,  "Gerhard Richter: Forty Years of Painting," at the Museum of Modern Art, New York.  
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<br>"Abstraktes Bild 758-2" (1992) comes from a purely abstract period in Richter's work- where the message is conveyed using a truly physical painting style, where applied paint layers are distorted with a wooden "Squeegee" tool. Essentially, Richter is sculpting the layers of paint, revealing the underlayers and their unique color combinations; there is a degree of "art by chance". If the painting does not work, Richter will move on- a method pioneered by Jackson Pollock decades earlier.  
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<br>Richter is included in prominent museums and collections worldwide, including the Tate, London, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, and the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, among many others.

GERHARD RICHTER

The world of Marc Chagall cannot be contained or limited by the labels we attach to it. It is a world of images and meanings which form their own splendidly mystical discourse. Les Mariés sous le baldaquin (The Bride and Groom under the Canopy) was begun as the artist entered his 90th year, a man who had known tragedy and strife, but who never forgot life’s moments of rapturous pleasure. Here, the dreamy delights of a Russian village wedding with its arrangements of well-worn attendees are brought to us with such happy wit and cheerful innocence that there is no resisting its charm. Using a golden toned emulsion combining oil and opaque, water-based gouache, the warmth, happiness, and optimism of Chagall’s usual positivism is wrapped in a luminous radiance suggesting the influence of gold-leaf religious icons or early Renaissance painting that sought to impart the impression of divine light or spiritual enlightenment. Using a combination of oil and gouache can be challenging. But here, in Les Mariés sous le baldaquin, Chagall employs it to give the scene an otherworldly quality, almost as if it has just materialized out of his mind’s eye. Its textural delicacy creates the impression that light is emanating from the work itself and gives a spectral quality to the figures floating the sky.

MARC CHAGALL

<div>Still lifes like<em> Oranges and Lemons (C 455) </em>give us an insight to the rich and colorful life of Churchill, just as his landscapes and seascapes do. Churchill painted <em>Oranges and Lemons</em> at La Pausa. Churchill would often frequent La Pausa as the guest of his literary agent, Emery Reves and his wife, Wendy.  Reves purchased the home from Coco Chanel.  While other members of the Churchill family did not share his enthusiasm, Churchill and his daughter Sarah loved the place, which Churchill affectionately called “LaPausaland”.  To avoid painting outside on a chilly January morning, Wendy Reves arranged the fruit for Churchill to paint. Surrounded by the Reves’s superb collection of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist works, including a number of paintings by Paul Cézanne, Oranges and Lemons illuminates Churchill’s relationships and the influence of Cézanne, who he admired. The painting, like Churchill, has lived a colorful life, exhibited at both the 1959 Royal Academy of Art exhibition of his paintings and the 1965 New York World’s Fair.</div>

SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL

The Pop Art Movement is notable for its rewriting of Art History and the idea of what could be considered a work of art. Larry Rivers association with Pop-Art and the New York School set him aside as one of the great American painters of the Post-War period.  
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<br>In addition to being a visual artist, Larry Rivers was a jazz saxophonist who studied at the Juilliard School of Music from 1945-1946. This painting's subject echoes the artists' interest in Jazz and the musical scene in New York City, particularly Greenwich Village and the Lower East Side.  
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<br>“Untitled” (1958) is notable bas the same owner has held it since the work was acquired directly from the artist several decades ago. This work is from the apex of the artists' career in New York and could comfortably hang in a museum's permanent collection.

LARRY RIVERS

<div><font face=Calibri size=3 color=black>Martha's Vineyard played a pivotal role in Thomas Hart Benton's artistic journey, offering him both inspiration and respite from urban life. His first visit to the sparsely populated island in 1920 marked a turning point, allowing him to escape the sweltering New York summers and find clarity in the island's serene environment. At a time before the island was deluged by the fabulously wealthy, Vineyard was a freewheeling community of artists and intellectuals that gave the ever-inquisitive Benton much-needed stimulation. It is here that Benton's bold colors and dynamic compositions achieved contour inflections, pictorial rhythms, and a strong-hued palette, which we associate with his mature style. Inspired early by Cézanne, Benton's landscapes transcend fleeting impressions. Yet he never abandoned the influence of Synchronism and its focus on color harmonies, tempo, and rhythm. That latter influence drives the energy and spirit of "Keith's Farm, Chilmark," organized into horizontal bands of visual information, creating a sense of motion and unity.</font></div>
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<br><div><font face=Calibri size=3 color=black>With its rolling pastures to the Atlantic Ocean and tranquil cloud formations beyond, the view over the Keith Farm pastures is one of the island's most spectacular. Overlooking Menemsha Pond to the Vineyard Sound, Benton captured and distilled the essential nature of the place, transforming it into a picturesque and personally significant composition. His use of modern techniques to strip the landscape down to its basic tendencies embodies pride in regional America and a reverence for the country's natural beauty in ways the streets of New York never could. Simultaneously, Benton imbues the work with what his daughter, Jessie, noted: music played a vital role in her father's art, informing a sense of motion using sinuous forms, each rendered in flowing complementary and contrasting colors and 'twisting, always moving, moving, moving.' Typical of Benton's best paintings, "Keith's Farm, Chilmark" is a well-orchestrated work that pulls individual elements into a unifying scheme of visual rhythm — a testament to his mastery of landscape painting and deep connection to Martha's Vineyard.</font></div>

THOMAS HART BENTON

PIERRE BONNARD - Soleil Couchant - oil on canvas - 14 1/2 x 22 1/2 in.

PIERRE BONNARD

JEAN-MICHEL BASQUIAT - Untitled (Pigeon Anatomy) - oil, graphite, and chalk on paper - 22 x 30 in.

JEAN-MICHEL BASQUIAT

AMEDEO MODIGLIANI - Cariatide - blue crayon on buff paper - 24 x 18 in.

AMEDEO MODIGLIANI

DAMIEN HIRST - Forgotten Thoughts - butterflies and household gloss on canvas - 48 x 48 in.

DAMIEN HIRST

Sympathetic in his portrayal of farmers and field workers and favoring themes of dedication and hard work, Thomas Hart Benton created hundreds of studies depicting the struggle for existence that was the brutal day-to-day life for so many Americans at that time. Hoeing Cotton has much of the dark, moody pallor that evokes the hardship of southern farming during the Great Depression. Staged as if held in suspended anticipation of an impending storm, Benton utilizes the dynamic interplay between sky and landscape to deepen the thematic impact of rural life in the deep south. These elements highlight the connection between people and their environment and the enduring spirit of resilience.

THOMAS HART BENTON

<div><font face=Calibri size=3 color=black>As a painter of the American Scene during the years of the Great Depression, Thomas Hart Benton's paintings and murals make the case that he was this country's greatest artist-storyteller. Deeply invested in capturing the unique qualities of what it meant to be 'American,' Benton's stylized contour inflections, pictorial rhythms, and strong-hued, technicolor-like palette conveyed the needed reassurance that the country remained strong and healthy. The spirit was unabashedly patriotic, and “<em>The Farm”</em>, painted late in life, proves Benton never turned away from social narratives that continue to provide an engaging mediation on American rural life and community. </font></div>
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<br>Despite the many changes in the art world that swirled about during the post-war years, "<em>The Farm,"</em> created in 1972, is a testament to this steadfastness. One would be hard-pressed to discern whether Benton painted it in 1942 or 1972; a timeless quality underscores Benton's dedication to his ideals and his resistance to the fleeting trends of the contemporary art scene. A populist at heart, he believed in the importance of art that spoke to and for the people, celebrating the dignity of labor, the strength of community, and the beauty of the American landscape. This populist ethos remains in "<em>The Farm</em>," where the depiction of rural life is at once idealized and deeply rooted in reality.</font></div>
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<br>In these challenging times, Benton's paintings serve as a poignant reminder of those values that once united and strengthened the country. His works offer a vision of America that reminds us of the enduring strength found in unity and the common values that can bridge divides. <em>"The Farm"</em> is not only a reflection of his artistic skill but also a testament to his unwavering commitment to that vision. </font></div>
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<br>There are three known paintings of "<em>The Farm</em>", the largest of which is an oil on canvas currently on loan to The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City. The present example, acrylic on panel, is titled, dated, and inscribed on verso by the artist: "For Jessie, Christmas '72 Daddy, The Farm, Polymer Tempera (Acrylic), Benton." A digital copy of a letter from the artist's daughter, Jessie, attests that she received "<em>The Farm</em>" from her father, Thomas Hart Benton, on Christmas 1972.</font></div>

THOMAS HART BENTON

<div><font face=Calibri size=3 color=black>Deeply influenced by his populist views and commitment to social realism, Thomas Hart Benton became an advocate for the common man, often depicting the struggles and resilience of ordinary Americans in his work. Coal strikes were frequent occurrences in the late 1920s and early 1930s, and <em>"Mine Strike"</em> is a visually compelling account of such an uprising, rich with social commentary. At the time, Benton traveled the nation seeking inspiration for a mural project and was particularly interested in social issues. In 1933, he illustrated the modern social history of the United States for <em>“We the People”,</em> published by Harper & Brothers, New York. <em>"Mine Strike"</em> is carefully constructed to highlight the chaos and human drama. </font></div>
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<br><div><font face=Calibri size=3 color=black>The figures are robust and grounded, reflecting Benton's signature style of muscular forms. The scene, though aggressive and violent, displays commitment and sacrifice. Two officers fire on the strikers, one of whom has fallen to the ground, shot. Set against the backdrop of an imposing mining complex, a towering black structure known as a 'tipple' looms ominously over the strikers. Its darkly sinister anthropomorphic shape contrasts sharply with the lighter, more organic human figures — an appearance intensified by its coal chutes resembling mechanical arms. This visual metaphor of industrial oppression underscores the pervasive threat posed by the coal mining industry and those paid to protect its interests.</font></div>
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<br><div><font face=Calibri size=3 color=black>Through <em>"Mine Strike,"</em> Benton not only documents a specific historical moment but also critiques the broader socio-economic conditions of his time. His depiction of the workers' plight is a powerful statement on the exploitation and struggles the working-class faces. Benton's political leanings towards advocating for social justice and his commitment to portraying the reality of American life are vividly encapsulated in this painting, making it a poignant and enduring piece of art.</font></div>
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<br><div><font face=Calibri size=3 color=black>Benton made two compositions about strike activities during this time: this painting and another, <em>“Strikebreakers”</em>, painted in 1931. Of the two, Benton used <em>"Mine Strike"</em> as the basis for a well-known lithograph issued in 1933. Benton described the scene as a "Strike battle" in the coal country. This is an imaginary reconstruction of a situation only too common in the late twenties and early thirties."</font></div>

THOMAS HART BENTON

FRANZ KLINE - Untitled, No. 7246 - oil on paper laid on board - 18 1/8 x 23 1/4 in.

FRANZ KLINE

HANS HOFMANN - Song of Love - oil on canvas - 36 1/4 x 48 1/4 inches

HANS HOFMANN

JOHN CHAMBERLAIN - ASARABACA - industrial weight aluminum foil with acrylic lacquer and polyester resin - 20 x 23 x 22 in.

JOHN CHAMBERLAIN

HEDDA STERNE - Untitled - oil, pastel, graphite on canvas - 80 x 26 x 1 1/4 in.

HEDDA STERNE

Experimental and highly sophisticated, Munch's innovative "jigsaw technique" involved cutting the woodblock into separate pieces and inking and printing each individually before reassembling them to create the final image. The process produced a variety of colors, unique prints within the same edition, and a wide range of emotions and moods. Richly orchestrated, the undulating forms of House on the Coast I are built through layers of color and texture featuring multiple planes, each contributing to its depth and spatial complexity. The carving and gouging of woodcuts, ideally suited for expressing Edvard Munch's often brutal working mentality, pushed the boundaries of traditional methods and reinforced his commitment to exploring emotional and psychological depth in his art.

EDVARD MUNCH

HANS HOFMANN - Untitled - oil on canvas - 25 x 30 1/4 in.

HANS HOFMANN

EMILY KAME KNGWARREYE - Anooralya Yam Story - synthetic polymer paint on linen - 60 1/4 x 48 in.

EMILY KAME KNGWARREYE

ALFRED SISLEY - Vaches au paturage sur les bords de la Seine - pastel on paper - 11 1/4 x 15 1/2 in.

ALFRED SISLEY

Well known for his candor and pragmatic sensibility, Alexander Calder was as direct, ingenious, and straight to the point in life as he was in his art. “Personnages”, for example, is unabashedly dynamic, a work that recalls his early love of the action of the circus as well as his insights into human nature. The character of “Personnages” suggests a spontaneous drawing-in-space, recalling his radical wire sculptures of the 1920s.
<br>© 2023 Calder Foundation, New York / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

ALEXANDER CALDER

CAMILLE PISSARRO - Paysage avec batteuse a Montfoucault - pastel on paper laid down on board - 10 3/8 x 14 3/4 in.

CAMILLE PISSARRO

Genieve Figgis is a notable figure in the contemporary Irish art scene, recognized for her clever and critical group portraits that often poke fun at long-ago social conventions. A relative latecomer to painting, she caught the attention of American appropriation artist Richard Prince on Twitter, who went on to purchase one of her works and introduced her to the influential circles of the New York art community. Figgis' work playfully critiques affluent middle-class consumption habits and luxurious lifestyles, as immortalized by artists of the past, and brings such subjects firmly into the present day with a mixture of satire and raw, authentic portrayals of life. Think of Figgis as reaching across the sands of time to Daumier or Hogarth, whose work frequently offered a satirical look at contemporary society, joining artists engaged in social satire and known for their keen observational skills.

GENIEVE FIGGIS

KEITH HARING - Untitled (Figure Balancing On Dog) - aluminum - 35 1/2 x 25 x 29 in.

KEITH HARING

Roger Brown is known for his personal and often fantastical imagery and highly stylized paintings with figures and objects that reflect his interest in everyday experiences. Acid Rain explores themes of modern life and social commentary that reflect the role of the artist in society and the potential of art to instigate change. On a more personal level, the theme of acid rain may symbolize corrosive emotional or psychological states, such as depression, anxiety, or the feeling of being overwhelmed by circumstances beyond one's control. Just as acid rain was a largely unseen but devastating environmental problem, the crisis of the emerging HIV/AIDS epidemic likely motivated Brown to create the work to process personal grief, critique the inadequate response from political leaders, and advocate for compassion, understanding, and medical research.

ROGER BROWN

Diebenkorn's Ocean Park series evokes the artist's delicate balance of light and color, his thoughtful composition, and the subtle integration of landscape elements, all of which simulate the coastal ambiance of his studio in Santa Monica. In the early 1990s, Diebenkorn revisited the themes and aesthetic sensibilities of the Ocean Park series by leveraging various printmaking techniques to extend his exploration of the abstract language he developed in his paintings. "High Green, Version I" exemplifies this pursuit, suggesting the compositional strategies, palette, and spatial concerns that define the Ocean Park series while also showcasing the unique possibilities of printmaking for reinterpreting these elements.

RICHARD DIEBENKORN

JOAN MIRO - L'Oiseau - bronze and cinderblock - 23 7/8 x 20 x 16 1/8 in.

JOAN MIRO

Andy Warhol is synonymous with American art in the second half of the 20th century and is known for his iconic portraits and consumer products, mixing popular culture and fine art, redefining what art could be and how we approach art. While many of Warhol’s works may not represent famed individuals, his depictions of inanimate objects elevate his subjects to a level of celebrity. Warhol first depicted shoes early in his career when he worked as a fashion illustrator and returned to the theme in the 1980s, combining his fascination with consumerism and glamour. With his constant desire to fuse high and low culture, Warhol chose to highlight something that is so ubiquitous as shoes. The subject can denote poverty or wealth, function, or fashion. Warhol glamorizes the pile of footwear, covering them with a patina of glitzy diamond dust, further blurring the meaning between utilitarian need and stylized statement piece.

ANDY WARHOL

© 2023 Calder Foundation, New York / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

ALEXANDER CALDER

FREDERICK CARL FRIESEKE - Hill at Giverny - oil on canvas - 25 1/4 x 31 1/4 in.

FREDERICK CARL FRIESEKE

Robert Motherwell's "Open" series, which began in the late 1960s, represents a significant direction in his work, emphasizing openness and spatial complexity through minimalistic compositions. Based on the window as a metaphorical motif rich in introspection and intimacy, "Open Study in Tobacco Brown" is intended to reflect the relationship between the interior self and the external world. It also demonstrates a commitment to exploring the boundaries of abstraction, the interplay of forms, and the emotional depth of color. "Open Study in Tobacco Brown" was produced in 1971, a transitional year when the artist divorced wife Helen Frankenthaler and met German photographer Renate Ponsold, whom he would marry the following year.

ROBERT MOTHERWELL

"Wigwam rouge et jaune", a captivating gouache painting by Alexander Calder, is a vibrant exploration of design and color. Dominated by a lattice of diagonal lines intersecting near their pinnacle, the composition exudes a dynamic balance. Calder introduces an element of whimsy with red and yellow diamond shapes, infusing the piece with playfulness and creating a festive atmosphere. Red balls at the right-leaning lines' apex evoke a whimsical impression, while smaller gray spheres atop left-leaning lines offer contrast and equilibrium. Calder's masterful fusion of simplicity and vital design elements makes Wigwam rouge et jaune a visual delight.

ALEXANDER CALDER

© 2023 Calder Foundation, New York / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

ALEXANDER CALDER

No artist bridged the gap between European Modernism and American Abstract Expressionism like Hans Hofmann did. The reason is simple: he was trained in Parisian academies before World War I and friendly with Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, and Robert and Sonia Delaunay, giving him a level of familiarity with European Modernism that no other Abstract Expressionist possessed. Untitled (View of Provincetown Harbor) combines elements of that early time, the unrestrained color of the Fauves in broadly brushed passages with the promise of the automatist painting of the New York School to come. It is highly gestural, blending the motifs and speed of Raoul Dufy's brush with a more masculine, bolder projection, suggesting the roots of Action Painting.

HANS HOFMANN

LOUIS VALTAT - Vase de coquelicots - oil on canvas - 23 1/2 x 19 in.

LOUIS VALTAT

<div><font face=Calibri size=3 color=black>Harry Bertoia’s “Sonambient” sculptures are a mesmerizing blend of art, sound, and science, and this 36-tine piece is a quintessential example of his innovative genius. Meticulously crafted with 36 rods aligned in a precise six-by-six configuration on a square base, this 77-inch-tall work embodies the harmonious intersection of visual beauty and auditory wonder.</font></div>
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<br><div><font face=Calibri size=3 color=black>Made from beryllium copper, a material favored by Bertoia for its superior acoustic properties and aesthetic appeal, the rods have developed a rich walnut-like patina over time. This patina adds to the sculpture’s visual allure, enhancing its historical and artistic value, and reflects a natural aging process that the artist himself, a naturalist, would have admired. When activated by touch or the movement of air, the rods produce a perceptible, fixed note accompanied by a range of ethereal tones, transforming the sculpture from a static object into a dynamic, multisensory experience. The long, swaying motion of the tall rods, reminiscent of the undulating desert grasses that inspired the artist initially, adds a captivating visual dimension. The cattail-like finials further evoke natural forms, underscoring Bertoia’s inspiration derived from the natural world.</font></div>
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<br><div><font face=Calibri size=3 color=black>Bertoia’s 36-tine “Sonambient” sculpture is more than a visual masterpiece; it profoundly explores sound, material, and participatory interaction. It exemplifies Bertoia’s belief in art as an immersive and evolving experience, where each encounter offers discoveries and sensations. Through this work, Bertoia has created a timeless piece that continues to captivate and inspire, highlighting his artistic vision's enduring power and deep connection to nature’s spiritual qualities.</font></div>

HARRY BERTOIA

Known for his fascination with fame, celebrity, and cultural icons, Andy Warhol occasionally reached beyond his contemporaries to include historical figures. Of particular interest, Goethe's theories on color emphasized how colors are perceived and their psychological impact, contrasting with the prevailing Newtonian physics-based understanding of color as a scientific phenomenon. Although there is no direct link that Goethe's color theory directly inspired Warhol to select him as a subject, it thematically highlights how we view Warhol's art as engaging with historical traditions to symbolize a bond between their respective fields and eras. In this sense, the work serves as an homage and a cross-temporal collaboration, linking Warhol's visual language with Goethe's awareness of color as a potent, stimulating element in perception.

ANDY WARHOL

ANDY WARHOL - Goethe - silkscreen in colors - 38 x 38 in.

ANDY WARHOL

RODOLFO MORALES - Untitled - oil on canvas - 37 1/4 x 39 1/4 in.

RODOLFO MORALES

A veteran of the battle of Verdun, Fernand Leger witnessed the horror and staggering loss of over 1 Million of his fellow countrymen during World War I.  This horrific experience of fighting in the trenches of Europe left an indelible mark on the artist.  The modern and mechanized aspects of this new form of warfare, with tanks, modern artillery, and gruesome tactics, inspired Leger to create some of his greatest masterpieces.  
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<br>The Present drawing, executed in 1930, is a relic from the decade following the First World War.  Untitled (1930) was purchased from the Katherine Kuh galley in Chicago- and has been impeccably preserved by the family of the original purchaser.  It is exceedingly rare to find drawings like Untitled outside of Museum collections.

FERNAND LEGER

ANDY WARHOL - Ford car - graphite on paper - 11 1/2  x 15 3/4 in.

ANDY WARHOL

Irving Norman was born in 1906 in Vilna, then part of the Russian Empire, now Lithuania. Norman's immigration to New York City in 1923 was short-lived, as he would return to Europe to fight as part of the Abraham Lincoln battalion against the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco. After the War, Norman would eventually settle in Half Moon Bay, California, where he embarked on a prolific studio practice.  
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<br>Norman's work portrays the horrors of war and his firsthand knowledge of totalitarian dictatorships. Norman's work has been described as "Social Surrealism," and his grand scenes are immediate and arresting. The large-scale works of Norman truly capture the power of his lived experiences; they are as much a visual record as they are a warning for the future, intended to inspire change.

IRVING NORMAN

ALEX KATZ - Peter - oil on masonite board - 15 7/8 x 7 1/8 in.

ALEX KATZ

<div><font face=Calibri size=3 color=black>Harry Bertoia was an authentic visionary in art, and they are rare. Of those whose métier is sculpture, Alexander Calder and Harry Bertoia are the twentieth-century American standouts. They are engineers of beauty; their creative currency is feats of invention and pure artistry that honor our experience of them (if we are willing to quiet our mind) as if a sacred event. It was Duchamp who suggested Calder call his kinetic works “mobiles”, but it was up to Bertoia himself to coin a word to describe something for which there was little precedent. Visually precise, kinetic, and offering resonant, vibratory sound, a “Sonambient” sculpture is at once a metaphor for our sentient experience in the world yet capable of inducing an aura of transcendent experience. Given that insight, it is easy to understand Bertoia’s view that “I don’t hold onto terms like music and sculpture anymore. Those old distinctions have lost all their meaning.”</font></div>
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<br><div><font face=Calibri size=3 color=black>The present “Sonambient” sculpture is a forty-eight-inch-tall curtain of thin-gauged tines. Once activated, it becomes a 15 3/4 inch long, 8 inches deep wall of sound. Five rows of narrow tines are staggered in number, alternating between 30 and 29 tines that, when activated, present as an undulating wall of sound. When touched or moved by air currents, the rods produce a sound that, while metallic, does not betray its source of inspiration: the serene connection Bertoia felt in observing the gentle undulating movement of desert grasses. As always, this is a Bertoia sculpture that invites participation in the experience of changing shapes and sounds, a participatory work that asks us to be present in the moment, to connect across time with the object and its creator.</font></div>

HARRY BERTOIA

<div><font face=Calibri size=3 color=black>Art enthusiasts celebrate Harry Bertoia’s “Sonambient” sculptures for their ability to transcend the traditional boundaries of visual art. Rising 56 inches, this sculpture of sixteen tines, topped with cattail-like finials crafted from beryllium copper and aged to a unique patina, suggests a powdery effect reminiscent of cattails in their natural state. This richly mottled patina enhances its visual appeal and historical significance, reflecting the natural aging process that Bertoia, a naturalist, would have deeply admired. The large surface area of the finials allows the patina to express itself differently, adding texture and depth to the sculpture’s appearance. The effect gives the piece an organic quality, further connecting it to the natural world that inspired Bertoia.</font></div>
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<br><div><font face=Calibri size=3 color=black>When activated by touch or the movement of air, the rods produce a continuous sound akin to an old church chime. This haunting, melodic tone transforms the sculpture from a static object into a dynamic auditory experience, evoking the serene and spiritual atmosphere of ancient places of worship. Bertoia always retained an awareness of the irony of using metal to produce the sounds of nature and organic forms. The sound resonates with a timeless quality, drawing listeners into a meditative state and highlighting the spiritual dimensions of Bertoia’s work.</font></div>
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<br><div><font face=Calibri size=3 color=black>Bertoia’s 56-inch “Sonambient” sculpture exemplifies his belief in art as an immersive, evolving experience. It invites viewers to engage with it physically and emotionally, discovering new layers of beauty and meaning with each interaction. Through this piece, Bertoia continues to captivate and inspire, celebrating the profound connection between art, nature, and spirituality.</font></div>

HARRY BERTOIA

JESSIE ARMS BOTKE - Two White Peacocks - oil on board - 29 1/4 x 24 1/2 in.

JESSIE ARMS BOTKE

<div><font face=Calibri size=3 color=black>George Rickey's "Two Up One Down Staggered" exemplifies his ability to marry minimalist aesthetics with complex mechanical motion. Ninety-seven inches tall and meticulously crafted from stainless steel, the sculpture reflects this synthesis beautifully. It explores the intersection between the precise movements of machinery and the organic, unpredictable motions found in nature. It features two elongated stainless-steel arms (Rickey called 'blades) extending upwards, balanced by a single element pointing downwards; all arranged staggered. This staggered configuration creates a dynamic visual rhythm, emphasizing the interplay between balance and imbalance and enhancing the sculpture's kinetic properties. The title succinctly encapsulates the components' structural arrangement and dynamic interaction, providing insight into Rickey's thoughtful design and his exploration of geometric and kinetic relationships.<br>
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<br>Stainless steel gives the sculpture a sleek, modern appearance and ensures its durability, allowing it to withstand outdoor conditions. This material choice underscores Rickey's intention for his works to engage directly with natural forces like wind and gravity. The components move gently with the slightest breeze, transforming static metal into a fluid, ever-changing form. A close inspection of Rickey’s solution for its fastening structure offers an appreciation for its precise engineering and a tribute to his attention to detail and craftsmanship. These fastening elements also show an artisanal touch, with visible welds, rivets, and sheet metal 'shaving' that emphasizes the handcrafted nature of the piece. These details reveal the manual labor and meticulous skill involved in the sculpture's creation while adding an element of authenticity and rawness to the artwork.<br>
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<br>The simplicity of the design belies the complexity of "Two Up One Down Staggered.” Rickey's precision in engineering these delicate movements ensures that each component interacts seamlessly, inviting contemplation and highlighting the beauty of kinetic art. This interplay of balance and motion captures the viewer's attention, transforming the act of observing into an engaging experience, and his work continues to inspire and challenge our perceptions of art, mechanics, and the natural world, making him a pivotal figure in the evolution of kinetic sculpture.</font></div>

GEORGE RICKEY

ARMAND GUILLAUMIN - Roquebrune, Le Matin - oil on canvas - 25 x 31 1/4 in.

ARMAND GUILLAUMIN

"Ray Gun became a catch title for all sorts of things. Looking down on the street, I would find this angle in the shape of a ray gun everywhere. And I would collect the ray guns. They became quite an obsession."
<br>-Claes Oldenburg
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<br>"Two Ray Guns" (1964) was initially sold through the venerable Sidney Janis Gallery. The work draws upon Oldenburg's keen observational sense and fascination with science fiction and popular American culture. The fascination with Ray Guns became a conceptual art practice for Oldenburg; he would not construct them in the traditional sense but instead, find objects that could be reduced into the form. Ray Gun Examples exist in plastic, bronze, plaster, and many different media.  
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<br>Our example from the Ray Gun series has been in the same important American collection for many years. Several examples from this series are in prominent museum collections worldwide, including the Museum of Modern Art, New York.

CLAES OLDENBURG

Andy Warhol's Campbell's Soup Cans series marks a pivotal moment in his career and the Pop Art movement. The series, consisting of 32 canvases, each depicting a different flavor, revolutionized the art world by elevating mundane, everyday consumer goods to the status of high art. The screen print Pepper Pot from 1968 employs his signature style of vivid, flat colors and repeated imagery, characteristic of mass production and consumer culture. Screen printing, a commercial technique, aligns with Warhol's interest in blurring the lines between high art and commercial art, challenging artistic values and perceptions.

ANDY WARHOL

<div><font size=3 color=black>Harry Bertoia's “Sonambient” sculptures are renowned for their meditative qualities, inviting viewers into a serene and contemplative state. Among the five “Sonambients” in our exhibition, even this most petite sculpture stands out with its remarkable sonic capabilities. This work, with its 64 tines, each capped with long, slender finials, produces a high-timbered sonority that is surprisingly robust. The delicate yet powerful sound offers an auditory experience that encourages reflection and heightened awareness.</font></div>
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<br><div><font size=3 color=black>A pivotal aspect of the “Sonambient” sculptures' evolution was the involvement of Bertoia's brother, Oreste, whose expertise as a musician enabled him to help Harry reconceptualize these sculptures, not just as visual or kinetic art but as instruments capable of producing an immersive soundscape. This collaboration highlighted the interdisciplinary nature of Bertoia's work, merging the worlds of sculpture and music. Experimenting with rods and tines of different metals, varying in length and thickness, he discovered a wide range of tones and textural droning sounds. Exhilarated by their ethereal, otherworldly resonance and his brother's encouragement, Bertoia filled his historic barn in Bally, Pennsylvania, with more than sixty “Sonambient” sculptures. It became a kind of orchestral studio and laboratory where he recorded albums and held concerts, and the once lowly barn became a hallowed place—a chapel of sorts—where visitors experienced it as a pilgrimage and a place of profound inspiration and meditation.</font></div>

HARRY BERTOIA

<div><font face=Calibri size=3 color=black>Trace a line from Alexander Calder to the kinetic achievements of George Rickey, and it is clear both are engineers of beauty. Their creations are feats of invention and artistry that honor our experience of them. The present Rickey sculpture "Eight Lines II – Sketch for Twenty-Four Lines" exemplifies the artist's intentions to bridge the gap between engineering precision and artistic expression, offering a mesmerizing display of motion and balance. Measuring 57 inches by 54 inches by 54 inches, the arms of this sculpture move within spherical parameters deliberately yet unpredictably, responding to the slightest movement of air. This intricate dance of elements, driven by natural forces, transforms the sculpture into a dynamic interplay of mechanical precision and organic fluidity.</font></div>
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<br><div><font face=Calibri size=3 color=black>A generation removed from Calder, Rickey came of age during World War II and widespread devastation. Ironically, yet without apology, Rickey honed his skills in precision and complex mechanical systems due to his military experience as a design technician focusing on the maintenance and instruction of aircraft gun turrets. These skills, of course, would later serve him well in fashioning his kinetic sculptures. With that in mind, the precise engineering and organic movement inherent in a Rickey kinetic sculpture symbolizes a bridge between destruction and renewal and serves as a testament to the resilience and innovative spirit of the post-war ethos.</font></div>
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<br><div><font face=Calibri size=3 color=black>With its radiating arms extending in multiple directions, "Eight Lines II – Sketch for Twenty-Four Lines" captures the essence of Rickey's meticulous design and engineering prowess. A design full of complexities, each arm, crafted from sleek stainless steel, moves gracefully, reflecting light and creating an ever-changing visual experience. This attention to detail highlights Rickey's skill in making connections that allow fluid movement while maintaining structural integrity.</font></div>

GEORGE RICKEY

Karl Benjamin and his peers Lorser Feitelson, Frederick Hammersley, and John McLaughlin hold a distinctive place in the history of American abstract art. Known for their precise, geometric forms and clean edges emphasizing flatness, they are California's Hard-edge painters who emerged in the late 1950s. Unlike Ellsworth Kelly, for example, their work reflects a brightness, clarity, and palette that suggests California's natural and built environment rather than the more urban and industrial influences felt on the East Coast. Furthermore, compared to the competitive art scene on the East Coast, the California group was a relatively small and close-knit community of artists with a sense of collaboration and shared exploration that contributed to a cohesive movement with a distinct identity.

KARL BENJAMIN

MARY ABBOTT - Untitled - oil and oil stick on paper mounted to canvas - 23 x 29 in.

MARY ABBOTT

Often overlooked, Warhol's ink and color dye drawings display his knack for reducing motifs and elements to their essential nature using an economy of line and a wonderful playfulness that characterizes each. They often remind us that art can best be effective purveyors of humor and whimsy if uncomplicated and free-flowing. Untitled, Flowers is a forerunning of his famous 1960 Vogue layout, combining drawings of flowers in fluorescent colors. It anticipates Warhol's early inclination to separate line from color, a device that would later give his silkscreen images their abstract immediacy.

ANDY WARHOL

The Arts and Crafts Movement in Great Britain and the corresponding ripples that made their way across the Atlantic Ocean were felt in the work of Jesse Arms Botke (1883-1971).  Botke was born in Chicago, Illinois but found her home in California, where she had a successful career working first in Carmel and later in Southern California. 
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<br>Rich textures, extensive use of gold leaf, and highly stylized birds would become synonymous with Botke's mature work as she established herself as one of the West Coast’s leading decorative mural painters of the 20th century.
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<br>"The White Peacock" (1922) shows an idyllic landscape with Botke's signature bird subject matter; the white peacock and cockatoos were among her favorite aviary subjects. Her work today can be found in countless museum collections, including the Art Institute, Chicago.

JESSIE ARMS BOTKE

ROBERTO MATTA - L'epreuve - oil on canvas - 29 1/2 x 25 1/2 in.

ROBERTO MATTA

Warhol's "Electric Chair" is undoubtedly the most macabre of Warhol's 70-odd paintings and prints from the Death and Disaster series yet its brilliant colors bring a stark, ameliorating contrast to the subject matter. The irony is that repetition and the mechanized purity of screen-prints that elevated Campbell's soup cans to fine art status serve a different purpose here. They act as desensitizing agents that, by degrees, create emotional separation from the gruesome, the macabre, death and mortality. As if to further declare his intentions, Warhol reduced the cavernous room of earlier iterations to a shallow plane, giving a more tightly focused view of the chair itself, its morbidity meliorated under blocks of yellow, pink, blue, and orange.

ANDY WARHOL