NATHAN OLIVEIRA (1928-2010)

NATHAN OLIVEIRA Heather James Fine Art is pleased to announce the commencement of our association with the Oliveira Family Estate and our initial offering of more than forty paintings, sculptures and graphics by Nathan Oliveira. A Californian whose work is of preeminent importance during the post war period, Oliveira is most often associated with Park, Diebenkorn and the other artists with whom he sketched early in his career. Yet it was not an oversight when Oakland Museum director Paul Mills chose not to include Oliveira in the 1957 exhibition “Contemporary Bay Area Figurative Painting.” All came to figuration by initiating a sophisticated dialogue with abstraction, yet it is Oliveira, the often characterized ambivalent loner among Bay Area artists whose work is most often compared to Alberto Giacometti, Francis Bacon, or Willem de Kooning with whom he shared walls and space at The Images of Man exhibition held in New York at the Museum of Modern Art in 1959.  

During the early years, Oliveira’s lone figures often suggested an existential angst similar to that of Giacometti, but there was also a weightlessness and a transcendent aura that envelopes these figures; they appear as elemental, universal and eternal projections of selfless consciousness better understood within the bodiless realm of metaphysics.  These qualities would remain in his work throughout his long career, yet he  would find other themes to explore — the natural world where the essential nature of birds and animals exist in equal profundity with their human counterparts, the transient world of evanescent perception when memory must reconstruct momentary experience, and later, the ‘site’ paintings and monoprints that suggest the abandoned remnants of a long-lost civilization or tribe uncovered at an archeological dig.

Through and through, flesh to bones, and bones to dust Nathan Oliveira has left us with a legacy of art that will surely remain untarnished by time or changing trends. His work exists within a realm rarely achieved by artists striving in a similar mode of expression. Unclouded by ego or wayward sentiment, it is also in the warmth and humble nature of Nathan Oliveira’s character that we celebrate a life well lived. His work is as he summarized, “about figuration…about nature…and (the) universal, not specific…These are issues that allow me to paint something that I find quite central and beautiful…I’m not trying to create issues of art. I don’t want to be the center of the art world. I really prefer to simply to part of it; not only the part of it that’s working today, but yesterday and the time before that. And if I can somehow connect all the way back to the caves I’d be most happy. Maybe that’s where I belong anyway.”

NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Standing Figure #4
oil on canvas
66 x 54 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Antlers
oil, alkyd and wax on canvas
84 x 70 x 1 1/2 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Han Stele with Wheels
oil and alkyd on canvas
84 x 70 x 1 3/4 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Seated Man in Room
oil on canvas
78 x 60 x 1 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Wing IV
oil on canvas
84 x 63 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Couple with Red
oil on canvas
50 1/8 x 42 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Figure #4
bronze
40 x 21 1/2 x 30 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Untitled
oil on canvas
84 X 63 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Woman
oil on canvas
36 1/4 x 27 x 1 1/2 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Gray Head in Grays and Blue
oil on canvas
25 3/8 x 21 1/4 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Hawk #11
oil on canvas
11 3/4 x 8 3/4 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Standing Figure #2
bronze
26 x 16 x 23 1/2 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Homage to Giacommetti (in same show)
watercolor on paper
11 7/8 x 8 3/4 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Homage to Schoenberg
monotype
29 3/4 x 22 1/4 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Figure
monotype
22 1/4 x 15 1/2 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Head #8
oil on panel
14 x 11 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Head #5
oil on panel
8 x 6 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Head #6
oil on panel
8 x 6 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Untitled (Figurative Painting #1)
acrylic on paper
40 5/8 x 27 1/2 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Figure, Arm Stand
monotype
17 1/2 x 15 1/4 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Nude I
monotype
20 3/8 x 14 5/8 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Baboon (Black)
drypoint with aquatint
44 1/4 x 39 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Copper Plate Nude 2
color spit bite etching with aquatint
16 x 12 3/4 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Acoma Hawk I
seven-color lithograph
30 x 22 1/2 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Acoma Hawk IV
four-color lithograph
30 1/8 x 22 1/8 in.
NATHAN OLIVEIRA
Acoma Hawk III
ten-color lithograph
30 1/8 x 21 3/4 in.
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The stands are: 32 H x 19-3/4 W x 19-3/4 D in.
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<br>Rat: 27 7/8 x 12 7/8 x 20 7/8 in.
<br>Ox: 29 1/8 x 20 1/8 x 16 7/8 in.
<br>Tiger: 25 7/8 x 14 7/8 x 16 7/8 in.
<br>Rabbit: 27 7/8 x 9 7/8 x 18 7/8 in.
<br>Dragon: 35 7/8 x 18 1/8 x 25 7/8 in.
<br>Snake: 27 7/8 x 14 1/8 x 6 3/4 in.
<br>Horse: 29 1/8 x 12 1/4 x 22 in.
<br>Ram: 25 1/4 x 20 7/8 x 16 1/8 in.
<br>Monkey: 27 1/8 x 12 7/8 x 14 7/8 in.
<br>Rooster: 24 x 9 x 16 7/8 in.
<br>Dog: 25 1/4 x 14 7/8 x 18 7/8 in.
<br>Boar: 27 1/8 x 16 1/8 x 20 7/8 in.
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<br>World-renowned Chinese contemporary artist Ai Weiwei is a sculptor, installation artist, architectural designer, curator, and social and cultural critic who has been exhibiting his work internationally since the late 1990s. His artistic practice is inextricably linked with cultural engagement and willingly crosses barriers between different media—cultural, artistic, and social. It was perhaps his detention from 2011 until August 2015 by the Chinese government that brought his views to the greatest audience. Ai Weiwei now lives in Germany and continues to create new works and uses his significant international profile to promote artistic and personal freedom.
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<br>These twelve sculptures depict the animals associated with the traditional Chinese zodiac. Ai Weiwei’s cycle references a European rendering of the zodiac animals designed by the Italian Jesuit Giuseppe Castiglione. The original sculptures were built in the eighteenth century for an elaborate water-clock fountain at the Yuanming Yuan (Old Summer Palace), which was ransacked in 1860. By recreating the lost and displaced statues, Ai Weiwei engages issues of looting, repatriation, and cultural heritage while expanding upon ongoing themes in his work concerning the “fake” and “copy” in relation to the original.
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<br>Ai Weiwei now works in Berlin, Germany.

AI WEIWEI

Created at a seminal point early in the artist’s career, Le Mont Riboudet à Rouen au Printemps by Claude Monet, depicts a beautiful landscape with flora, figures working in the fields, and haystacks. The aesthetic is comparable to that of Camille Pisarro and Alfred Sisley, Monet’s contemporaries also working en plein air at the time to capture nuances of the French countryside on canvas. The painting’s distinguished provenance includes Durand-Ruel and Gustave Caillebotte.

CLAUDE MONET

Blood Cinema is an elegant and interactive masterwork of steel and acrylic by Anish Kapoor. The artist’s most notable works are grand-scale public installations that explore perception, captivating and challenging viewers worldwide with iconic public installations such as Chicago’s Cloud Gate (2006) and in his well-known glass and mirror pieces. Resting on the floor like an oversized lens, Blood Cinema warps the viewer’s perspective and distorts its environment through ethereal shades of red, epitomizing Kapoor's capacity for viewer immersion.

ANISH KAPOOR

Tom Wesselmann’s supercharged colors mirror popular advertising while the lounging female forms allude to Western art history’s classic figurative motif. A wonderful example of this synthesis is the 1997 painting 1962 Plus 35 Nude Sketch II. Here, the reclining woman’s eyes are barely visible beneath the surface of the paint, yet her lips are a bold red with a thick black outline. The hyper-sexualized presentation of the female body seems to address the consumer culture of Post War America – the commoditization of the flesh. Wesselmann’s dazzling paintings bring together elements of art historical tradition and 1960s imagination, creating a singular style.

TOM WESSELMANN

Rothenberg created Diagonal (1975) in the year of her breakout exhibition at 112 Greene Street in New York. Her Horses series reintroduced representational imagery when the dominant trends were abstraction and Minimalism. The painting’s expressive brushwork, sense of movement, and simplified forms result in a triumphant blend of figuration and abstraction. As in many of Rothenberg's important works, Diagonal evokes the muted and enchanting colors and atmosphere of her adopted home in the American Southwest.

SUSAN ROTHENBERG

Shortly after his major retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1941, Salvador Dalí parlayed the idea of accumulated, or “flowering,” eyes into a grand oil and tempera painting for the set of his 1944 ballet Mad Tristan. In this painting from the same year, Les Yeux Fleuris, Dalí depicts three rows of four eyes with long lashes and a tear dropping on a brick wall backdrop. Eyes appear in Dalí paintings, sculpture, and jewelry throughout his career — as late as the 1981 painting Argus and, most notably, in paintings Dalí made for the dream sequences of the film Spellbound directed by Alfred Hitchcock.

SALVADOR DALI

"San Loretto" (2008) references a story from the Catholic faith, in which the house of the Holy Family was miraculously transported out of Nazareth for protection during the Crusades. The story appeals to Anselm Kiefer's distinctive visual themes of ruin and renewal, depicting the great effort of carrying the structure to Italy while speaking to the destruction of the Crusades. The buildup of fragments and rubble on San Loretto coalesces into an image of a bird, which combined with the title and its layers of meaning, suggests the figure of a dove and even the Holy Spirit. Kiefer has said, “People think of ruins as the end of something, but for me they were the beginning. When you have ruins you can start again."
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<br>The painting shows Kiefer’s desire to create a self-contained world within the confines of the canvas; the winged form flies effortlessly across a vast, open landscape created using Kiefer’s favored thick-Impasto surface.  
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<br>Kiefer draws from a variety of sources for the subjects of his work, including Judeo-Christian themes, mythological subjects, and German history itself.  Kiefer can produce some of the most provocative and innovative works of our time using his automatic process. Much like the spontaneous working nature of Jackson Pollock before him, Kiefer is spiritually connected to the work during the creative process, letting his subject come through at the moment.    
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<br>In honor of Kiefer’s 70th birthday, the Centre Pompidou, the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, and the Museum der bildenden Künste in Leipzig hosted a retrospective exhibition for the artist in 2015.  The present work has been held in a private collection since its creation.

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Nectarine (c. 1976) is an example of the large-scale steel sculpture for which Anthony Caro is best known. Considered to be a major influence in the development of modern sculpture, Caro was once a studio assistant to Henry Moore and sought inspiration from American sculptor David Smith. Often recognized for the revolutionary contribution of removing sculpture from pedestals and installing them directly on the ground, Caro places his work directly in the viewer’s space.

ANTHONY CARO

James Rosenquist was a prominent member of the Pop Art movement that emerged in American Art after WWII, along with Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, and Robert Rauschenberg. Rosenquist, in fact, was Warhol’s favorite artist. His unique vision of pop art was the unusual juxtaposition of cultural and mass media images on large scale canvases.
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<br>“Untitled” (1988) in electrifying colors represents Rosenquist’s high-energy large paintings. The artwork is connected to his significant series, “Welcome to the Water Planet,” which combined various disparate elements to address environmental concerns about planet Earth.

JAMES ROSENQUIST

American painter John Marin set up his studio in Paris where he drew upon ideas from both the Post-Impressionists and the budding Modernism of the early 20th century. Championed and supported by renowned gallerist Alfred Stieglitz and photographer Edward Steichen, Marin returned to the United States, bringing with him the avant-garde European style of painting that he rooted in the natural landscape. Marin made annual trips to Maine, inspired by its coast and landscape. In Cape Split, Maine, Marin captures the stark ruggedness of the seacoast.

JOHN MARIN

Robert Motherwell is admired for his gestural contributions to Abstract Expressionism. From his early period starting in the 1940s until his final works of the 1990s, one can see a distinct stylistic shift into his characteristic Elegy paintings and signature gestural works. Gesture No. 45 demonstrates Motherwell’s intuitive approach to painting influenced by the automatic drawing of the Surrealists. His gestures in this painting are characterized by a suggestion of chance and accident: “Painting is a medium in which the mind can actualize itself; it is a medium of thought,” he said. “Thus painting, like music, tends to become its own content.”

ROBERT MOTHERWELL

Larry Rivers is considered by many to be the "Godfather" of the Pop-Art movement.  In Larry Rivers' 1980 work "Beyond Camel," we see a slightly out of focus Camel Cigarette pack, an item from consumer culture Rivers has appropriated to create a critique of commoditization and consumer culture.  Rivers would have certainly been aware of the work of Stuart Davis and his 1921 painting, "Lucky Strike," depicting a flattened pack of cigarettes.  Rivers interprets his subject with a pop-art perspective; however, the imagery is almost larger than life, and the brand image is presented as a subject unto itself.  
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<br>In 2002 a retrospective of Rivers' work was held at the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.

LARRY RIVERS

Andy Warhol, who famously said that, “In the future, everybody will be famous for 15 minutes,” was known for his portraits of influential and powerful celebrities, businesspeople, and socialites. He was obsessed with exploring hallmarks of a consumer society such as wealth and fame. From his renowned Factory studio in New York, Warhol became a pop culture icon, one of the most important artists of the 20th century, and a name synonymous with Pop art. 
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ANDY WARHOL

Julian Schnabel is an American painter whose style is associated with the Neo-Expressionist movement of the 1980s. Pascin Pig Passin Time is part of Schnabel’s broken plate series of paintings, inspired by the trencadís, or broken tile mosaic, of architect Antoni Gaudí. With a humorous title and depicting his first wife, Jacqueline Beaurang, the broken ceramics give Schnabel an assertive and textural surface in which to create large-scale works that captured the brash and audacious period of the 1980s.

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Gabriel Orozco is one of the preeminent artists working today. A native Mexican, Orozco gained initial recognition in the 1990s through his artistic creations across a wide range of media, including sculpture, drawing, photography, and installation works. Orozco had a significant mid-career traveling retrospective that ended in 2011 at the Tate Modern. He is widely regarded as one of the most innovative artists of our time.
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<br>“Samurai Tree - Invariant Gold 2” (2005) is part of the “Samurai Tree” series, the genesis of which was an exploration into the geometry of the circle in drawings Orozco produced on graph paper before 2004.  
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<br>“I thought that by establishing some rules, I could build up a structure that behaves like a sculpture,” says the artist, “so it’s a flat mobile maybe, or it’s a diagram that’s rotating and moving. And behaving not like a painting, in a way.”

GABRIEL OROZCO

Jim Dine was an American Pop artist whose work meditated on objects with childlike appeal to find a universal and nostalgic language. Dine’s robes are among the most recognizable images to have emerged from his long and illustrious career. They were first shown at Sidney Janis gallery in the fall of 1964 – this is one such example. Double Silver Point Robes is a large-scale mixed media assemblage. The work is executed in silverpoint – a technique that utilizes a piece of silver as a drawing instrument over a specially prepared ground by which it oxidizes over a period of months to create a warm brown tone. The two joined canvases feature blocks of wood in place of where the heads should be and a hanging wood element that moves in response to air currents.

JIM DINE

Andrew Wyeth is considered among the preeminent representational painters of the 20th century. Born in Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania, Wyeth drew his subject matter from the world around him: the interiors and exteriors of the stone buildings, mills, and farms of the Brandywine River countryside, and in the summers, the clapboard houses and stark landscape of the Maine coast. 
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<br>In this full-sheet watercolor, “Star Route” (1977), Wyeth depicted a house on the road to East Friendship, Maine, not far from his own summer residence. While relying on keen visual observation, he pared down the elements of a composition to their most essential, giving his works an abstracted quality and imbuing them with a sense of quietude and stillness.

ANDREW WYETH

American painter Pat Steir has sought inspiration in both Abstract Expressionism and Taoist philosophy. Ancient Chinese painting techniques, most significantly the eighth and ninth century “ink-splashing” painters, helped to inform her Waterfall series, which gained her acclaim and recognition in the 1980s. These works, created by splashing and dripping her pigments onto the canvas, were inspired by the relationship between humanity and nature, and the concept of allowing elemental forces to actively assist in creating her paintings. She begins the process, and then lets gravity and the environment take over, the results no longer in her hands.  
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<br>Also appearing repeatedly in her work is floral imagery. This large-scale triptych from 1981 is one of her earliest Chrysanthemum paintings. It was exhibited in the Whitney Biennial in 1982.

PAT STEIR

Deborah Butterfield is an American sculptor, best known for her sculptures of horses made of objects ranging from wood, metal, and other found objects. The 1981 piece, Untitled (Horse), is comprised of sticks and paper on wire armature. The impressive scale of this piece creates a remarkable effect in person, presenting a striking example of Butterfield's celebrated subject matter. Butterfield originally created the horses from wood and other materials found on her property in Bozeman, Montana and saw the horses as a metaphorical self-portrait, mining the emotional resonance of these forms.

DEBORAH BUTTERFIELD

Henry Moore, a father of Modern British sculpture, is known for his large-scale, semi-abstract figurative sculptures in bronze, wood, and marble. This 1960 bronze sculpture of two seated figures demonstrates Moore’s gestural treatment of material. The focus on a family group is reflective of the artist’s move toward a sense of optimism after World War II. Small sculptures like this one are rare, and in subject mater and composition are reminiscent of his earlier seated figures based upon ancient Egyptian royal sculpture.

HENRY MOORE

Widely respected photo-realist painter Davis Cone (b.1950) showcases his immense talent in “River Oaks Theater”.  The stage-like composition with an immaculate sense of detail and realism is almost indistinguishable from a photograph. Along with Richard Estes and Ralph Goings, Davis Cone emerged as one of the pre-eminent photo-realists working after the 1970s.   
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<br>Cone is widely collected by museums and exhibited regularly with the O.K. Harris gallery in New York City from 1979-1998.

DAVIS CONE

Guenther Uecker and his avant-garde contemporaries experimented with monochromatic color, light, materiality, and repetition. For Uecker, this experimentation manifested in his noteworthy nail-covered canvases. The 1984 piece, Poesie der Destruktion – Poetry of Destruction – presents a tumultuous arrangement on a neat square background. The swarming bed of nails evokes a forceful action with violent connotations. Black and orange swaths of oil paint undulate on the rough surface beneath the exterior of hammered and bent metal. The composition suggests wreckage, yet it lives in the context of artistic creativity, urging the viewer to observe the coexistence of creative and destructive forces.

GUENTHER UECKER

Brightly colored geometric paintings by Peter Halley address the rigid organization of social space through visual representations of cells and conduits. Eulogy (Commission), a 2004 piece at a grand scale, presents the neon-colored forms that characterize his work. The piece incorporates Roll-a-Tex, a material most often used as cheap surfacing for suburban homes or motels, a comment on the commoditization of domestic life.

PETER HALLEY

A leading artist of the Arte Povera movement in the 1960s and '70s, Jannis Kounellis challenged the traditional media of art making. His work often incorporates natural or everyday materials, installation, or performance. Untitled (2014) is a unique example of his sculptural work in iron, canvas, and enamel. A common thread in his work is a sense of isolation experienced in contemporary society, combining elements of the past and the present to address memory, detachment, history, and loss. Kounellis once explained, “[art] must be born of historical necessity: that is, it must be of a historical situation and constitute the indispensable language of that moment.”

JANNIS KOUNELLIS

Henri Matisse is one of the most influential artists of the twentieth century and whose oeuvre covers painting, drawing, sculpture, etchings, linocuts, lithographs, aquatints, paper cutouts, and book illustration. An early proponent of Fauvism with its outrageous colors and dynamic composition, Matisse would also move into abstraction, pioneering the use of color and form in each stage of his career. This drawing depicts Madame Monchaux and displays the incredible draftsmanship that often characterized his work. Striving to achieve “the art of balance, of purity and serenity”, his drawings appear effortless but are careful studies to unite line and form.

HENRI MATISSE

Richard Prince is one of the most influential names in contemporary art. Prince is part of The Pictures Generation, a loosely associated group of artists who appropriated mass media imagery to examine and question issues of stereotypes, cultural tropes, and the constructed narrative of images. Prince and The Pictures Generation helped to usher in post-modernism in art.
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<br>In the late 1970s, Richard Prince began taking photographs of photographs, appropriation art in line with the readymades of Marcel Duchamp. "Untitled (Portrait)(Boy)" was included in the sensational 2014 Gagosian exhibition, New Portraits. For this series, Prince himself commented on each of the Instagram images and appropriated them for this body of work, creating a precise snapshot of our time. This work and series ask us to question the meaning within the proliferation of “selfies” and how people use these images to create and to project a narrative of themselves. It also challenges ideas of authorship, both constructing and deconstructing the nature of images while capturing a sense of immediacy within the apparatus of social media.

RICHARD PRINCE

Roy Lichtenstein’s style of Pop art was inspired by comic strips, in which he created images through a combination of mechanical reproduction and hand-drawing. He used iconic images and cultural influences to create striking action images, often with captions and onomatopoeic exclamations, much as one would find in comics. This screenprint is from a group of seven Reflections prints and in each, the image is obscured by color and patterns resembling the reflected light as if behind glass. Inspired by trying to photograph a work by Robert Rauschenberg behind glass, Lichtenstein appropriated images from his past and thus brings the appropriation of Pop art full circle.

ROY LICHTENSTEIN

Bay Area artist Roland Petersen’s Luncheon is an oil on canvas from 1961, a critical year for his best-known Picnic series. His work from this period is characterized by thick impasto and rich color. Profoundly influenced by studies with Hans Hoffman, Petersen experimented with abstraction, here blending abstract and figurative styles. Painted when Petersen was 35 years old, Luncheon lies within a timeframe that includes his sold-out one-man show in 1962 at Staempfli Gallery, New York, his solo show at Esther-Robles in Los Angeles, and the Guggenheim Fellowship that afforded the opportunity for study in Paris.

ROLAND PETERSEN

More than an artist, Theaster Gates also works as curator, urban planner, and project facilitator. From sculpture to painting, installation to public projects, Gates’s works are hubs in which to question labor and commodity while also bringing to the fore people and things that are often unseen and unheard. Convex Concave takes custom-made bricks that Gates had previously used for Black Vessel for a Saint at the Walker Art Center and repurposes it into a painting-like sculpture that references minimalist artist like Sol LeWitt, the labor of making bricks, and the original context of the bricks for the installation at the Walker.

THEASTER GATES

Mel Ramos is best known for his paintings of superheroes and female nudes juxtaposed with pop culture imagery. Ramos’s Peek-A-Boo portfolio is a well-known series by the artist, positioning the viewer to observe the pin-up girl figures through a keyhole shape surrounded by black. The series is noted for the confident and direct gazes of its subjects as well as the commentary it provides on the sexualization of a traditional art historical motif: the nude female figure. Alongside fellow Pop artists like Andy Warhol, James Rosenquist, and friend Roy Lichtenstein, Ramos provided a visual language for audiences to understand and experience the proliferation of commercial images that exploded in post-war America.

MEL RAMOS

Ross Bleckner is a celebrated American painter whose works reference loss, memory, and change such as explorations of the cell during the AIDS epidemic or in response to his father’s cancer diagnosis. The 1965 MoMA exhibition that brought Op Art to the fore, The Responsive Eye and included artists Richard Anuszkiewicz, Tadasky, and Francis Celentano, had a profound influence on him as an artist. This painting, like his other immersive, large-scale works, elicit a powerful, hypnotic, dizzying effect. Aesthetically pleasing, Bleckner’s canvases explore perception – visual, emotional, physical, time. Bleckner is part of the same generation of and friends with Julian Schnabel, David Salle, Eric Fischl, and Peter Halley, all of whom returned painterly technique to the canvas.

ROSS BLECKNER

Richard Tuttle is a seminal American postminimalist artist. Tuttle’s work is conceptual and meditative, crossing the boundary of sculpture, painting, and poetry, and often challenging the viewer. Untitled (Cloth and Paint Work #2) from 1973, a pivotal period in the artist’s career, evokes the earlier minimalism of his career while pushing towards material-based conceptual art. In the work he pays homage to Marcel Duchamp’s readymades. Textiles, as in this piece, play a large role in his oeuvre and become sites on which to focus performance, engagement, and meaning.

RICHARD TUTTLE

Ed Ruscha is one of the most distinguished American artists due in part for his explorations of the symbols of Americana and the relationship between language and art. The End is a cinematic theme that the artist used in the 1990s and 2000s, appearing in paintings, prints, and drawings – notably the 1991 large-scale painting at the Museum of Modern Art. Addressing the passage of time and obsolescence, Ruscha makes use of an antiquated typeface and an old cinematic tradition of using text in film. The concept of ephemerality is enhanced by the words themselves, The End, and the nature of the medium itself; considered futuristic when it was developed in the 1960s, the laser technology for holograms also creates a sense of impermanence as the images change with the viewer’s movement. While there is innate movement in the shifting words and images, these holograms also represent a full stop – a transitory moment frozen in time.

ED RUSCHA

American artist Robert Rauschenberg helped to revolutionize art in the 20th century through his assemblages incorporating found objects and pop culture. For the Hoarfrost series, Rauschenberg used solvent to transfer images from newspapers and magazines to unstretched fabric. Hoarfrost is a kind of lacy film made up of minute, needle-like ice crystals. Rauschenberg evoked the transience of the hoarfrost by printing newspaper and magazine pages on overlapping layers of delicate fabrics. Other pieces in this series are in the collections of The Guggenheim, MoMA, SF MOMA, the National Gallery of Art and Tate.

ROBERT RAUSCHENBERG

Irving Norman was an American painter whose works examined modern civilization and the human condition. Norman conceived his paintings as public works that bore witness to history and systems of power. He was influenced by his experiences as a Polish immigrant, as a defender of the Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War, and as an observer of the conflicts in the 20th century. The Palace has been exhibited at the Crocker Art Museum in Sacramento, the Pasadena Museum of California Art, the Nora Eccles Harrison Museum of Art at Utah State University, and Katzen Arts Center at American University in Washington D.C. Heather James is proud to represent the estate of Irving Norman.

IRVING NORMAN

Stanton Macdonald-Wright was a co-founder of the Synchromism movement, which combined abstraction and intense color. He was influenced by ideas that the qualities of color were connected to the qualities of music. He stopped painting this way in the 1920s, but his work experienced a revitalization in the 1950s, following a retrospective of his work at LACMA. Inspired by the renewed interest, Wright began producing works with increased passion; these works were considered Neo-Synchromism. La Gaîté is a phenomenal example of this period in Wright’s career, showcasing the brighter colors and larger canvases he favored during his personal renaissance.

STANTON MACDONALD-WRIGHT

Franz Kline was a central figure in American Art until his death in 1962. Close friends with Jackson Pollock and the “Cedar Tavern” group, Kline would help make New York City the epicenter of post-war avant-garde art in the 1940s and 1950s. Broad, gestural abstractions dominate the artist’s work. Those abstractions range from small, eloquent studies (such as the present work) and grow in scale to some of his monumentally scaled oil on canvas works, such as “Monitor” (1956) at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles.  Kline tapped into the unconscious; his work portrays the free-flowing and impromptu moment. “Untitled” (1951) was in the artist’s collection until 1960, just two years before his death. Smaller-scale works of comparable quality can be found in museum collections worldwide. The Museum of Modern Art in New York has a similar drawing on newsprint: “Untitled” (1951).

FRANZ KLINE

Norman Bluhm's Black and Red (1953), first owned by fellow artist Sam Francis, is an explosive drip painting that characterizes the artist’s style in the late 1950s. Bluhm's process and resulting work epitomizes the category of Abstract Expressionist painters that earned the moniker "action" painters. The energy and passion present in Bluhm’s work was likely fueled by his experience fighting in World War II. The intensity of his paintings from the decade following the war is one reason why Bluhm’s work from the 1950s are some of the most highly sought-after. The top ten prices for the artist at auction are held by paintings from this era.

NORMAN BLUHM

Contemporary American artist George Condo coined the term “artificial realism” to characterize the figures that appear in his work – often described as a combination of European Old Master painting and American Pop art. Condo has defined the term as the “realistic representation of that which is artificial.” Known for figures that are often grotesque or fractured, Condo creates art that is both Contemporary and rooted in art historical tradition, drawing inspiration from Cubism or, in this case, reaching back to ancient Greece. In an uncommon work of sculpture, Condo imparts his distinctive style to the face of a Mycenaean archetype, the goddess figure.

GEORGE CONDO

Ed Moses was a prominent figure in the Los Angeles art scene for nearly 70 years. He first exhibited in 1949 and was part of the original group of artists from the Ferus Gallery in 1957 – fellow Cool School artist Ed Ruscha also had his first solo exhibition there in 1963. The large scale and tryptic formation of “Franco-Del #1 & #3” from 2006 is rare for Moses. The piece is executed in earth tones of browns, grey, black, rust and pine green. Always working with process and experimenting with materials as a painter, Moses has been critically lauded for his bold composition and innovation.

ED MOSES

Donald Sultan’s Black and Blue from 2008 fits comfortably within both Pop art and Minimalism. The work is a sly reference to Warhol as if a polarized negative image of the Pop artist’s iconic Flower series. Working with unconventional use and application of paint, Sultan vacillates between abstraction and representational art, but always maintaining strong contrasts and powerful, simple statements. Sultan describes his work as "heavy structure, holding fragile meaning." Sultan’s work is represented in the permanent collections of many major museums in the United States and abroad, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and the Whitney Museum of American Art.

DONALD SULTAN

"Purple Tree" from 1936 shows the genesis of the artist's evolution into total abstraction. One of a series of Casein works on panel completed in 1936, the present work is fully documented and recorded in the Hans Hofmann Catalogue Raisonné. "Purple Tree" shows Hoffmann's "push/pull" color theory, where he placed warm and cool colors side by side. Hofmann was an influential instructor for Helen Frankenthaler, Joan Mitchell, Frank Stella, Lee Krasner, and Louise Nevelson (among many others).  
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<br>The 2019 exhibition "Hans Hofmann: The Nature of Abstraction" at the University Museum in Berkeley, California, featured 70 works and showed the evolution of Hofmann throughout his career.

HANS HOFMANN

Richard Diebenkorn, a central figure in the Bay Area Figurative Movement, created this intimate drawing during the early 1960s. This period is considered by many to be among the most innovative periods of art in the 20th century. At a time when painters were concentrating on abstract gestural compositions in New York and Europe, Diebenkorn led a counterpoint to this movement in the San Francisco Bay Area. 
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<br>The chosen medium of ink is reminiscent of Henri Matisse’s figurative studies. Diebenkorn admired the compositional elements of Matisse, particularly his attention to figural expression. Diebenkorn created a rich body of figurative works on paper during his time in and around Berkeley. A dynamic shift would soon occur in his work through the prominent imagery of the “Ocean Park" series.

RICHARD DIEBENKORN

After producing a large cycle of works known as Contrasts of Forms, which infuse abstraction into genres of landscape, still life, and figure, Leger In the mid-1920s, was associated with the French formalist movement called Purism, which sought to strip Cubism of its decorative aspects. This is when he created Profil, Vase et Clef, adopting flatter colors and bold, black outlines in his work. From this point forward on, his art was essentially figurative. Profil, Vase et Clef was exhibited at Galerie Beyeler in Basel and illustrated in the catalog, and the provenance also includes Galerie Louise Leiris and Galerie Seroussi in Paris.

FERNAND LEGER

Carl Andre is an American artist who helped pioneer minimalist sculpture and was the husband of famed and celebrated artist Ana Mendieta. This is a classic text piece from the early 1960s and is typical of his poems which are composed by selecting individual words from source texts, and then ordering them on the page according to simple and self-evident criteria, which, in this case, is by alphabetical listing. Aviator Charles Lindbergh deep fascinated Carl Andre whom he returned to as a source for his poetry. This work with its structured repetition like his famed sculptures reflect the minimalism and post-minimalism emerging in the 1960s and the 1970s including fellow concrete poet Christopher Knowles.

CARL ANDRE

Celebrated Hassel Smith moved through different styles over his long career including Abstract Expressionism, his “Measured” series, and Gestural Abstraction. This painting comes from his “Measured” period in which paintings encompassed geometric shapes and numbers on grids. Smith finds rhythms in the paintings through the intervals and sizes of the shapes. Among his friends were Clyfford Still and Mark Rothko. Smith lived in the Bay Area of California before moving to the UK, settling in Cornwall and Bristol. Heather James is proud to represent the estate of Hassel Smith.

HASSEL SMITH

Paul Wonner is one of the most celebrated artists of the Bay Area Figurative movement, along with David Park, Elmer Bischoff, Richard Diebenkorn, and his partner William Theophilus Brown. The Bay Area Figurative Movement was a loose collection of artists that broke away from the dominant and overly-influential style of abstract expressionism, pushing considerations of what is modern away from abstraction once more onto the body and figuration. This painting comes from Wonner’s period in which he adopted the crisp realism of Dutch Baroque still life painting, populating his works with objects from everyday contemporary life. Acclaimed for his expressive figurative paintings and distinctive style of still life painting, Wonner had numerous solo exhibitions in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco and his works are held at major museums throughout the United States, including the Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington, D.C., the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York. Heather James is proud to partner with the Crocker Art Museum to represent the estate of Paul Wonner and William Theophilus Brown.

PAUL WONNER

William Theophilus Brown, along with his partner Paul Wonner, is one of the most celebrated artists of the Bay Area Figurative movement, along with David Park, Elmer Bischoff, and Richard Diebenkorn. The inspiration to take chances and to try new mediums is evident in Brown’s works including his fearless examination of nude forms, bold colors, his shifts from sensual form to precise architectural landscapes, and even his experimentation during his last decade with collage and pure abstraction. This painting is a great example of Brown’s draftsmanship in its careful but bright study of the seated figure. Brown ran through many artistic circles and included among his friends, Samuel Barber, Igor Stravinski, Paul Hindemith, André Previn, Mary Sarton, Christopher Isherwood, and Don Bacardy. Heather James is proud to partner with the Crocker Art Museum to represent the estate of Paul Wonner and William Theophilus Brown.

WILLIAM THEOPHILUS BROWN