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Notre galerie à Palm Desert est située au centre de la région de Palm Springs en Californie, à côté de la zone commerçante et salle à manger populaire d'El Paseo. Notre clientèle apprécie notre sélection d'art d'après-guerre, moderne et contemporain. Le temps magnifique pendant les mois d'hiver attire les visiteurs de partout dans le monde pour voir notre beau désert, et s'arrêter à notre galerie. Le paysage désertique montagneux à l'extérieur offre la toile de fond panoramique parfaite à la fête visuelle qui vous attend à l'intérieur.

45188, avenue Portola
Palm Desert, Californie 92260
(760) 346-8926

Heures d'ouverture :
du lundi au samedi de 9h à 17h

Expositions

Peintures de Dorothy Hood
COURANT

Peintures de Dorothy Hood

18 mars - 31 mai 2024
Ansel Adams : Affirmation de la vie
COURANT

Ansel Adams : Affirmation de la vie

1er décembre 2023 - 30 juin 2024
No Other Land : Un siècle de paysages américains
COURANT

No Other Land : Un siècle de paysages américains

21 septembre 2023 - 30 juin 2024
Alexander Calder : Façonner un univers primaire
COURANT

Alexander Calder : Façonner un univers primaire

23 août 2023 - 31 mai 2024
Georgia O
COURANT

Georgia O'Keeffe et Ansel Adams : Art moderne, amitié moderne

13 juillet 2023 - 31 juillet 2024
Premier cercle : Les cercles dans l
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Premier cercle : Les cercles dans l'art

14 février 2023 - 31 mai 2024
Polaroïds d
COURANT

Polaroïds d'Andy Warhol : Merveilles de la vie

13 décembre 2021 - 30 juin 2024
Irving Norman : Matière noire
COURANT

Irving Norman : Matière noire

27 novembre 2019 - 30 juin 2024
Picasso : au-delà de la toile
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Picasso : au-delà de la toile

4 octobre 2023 - 30 avril 2024
Papier découpé : Œuvres uniques sur papier
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Papier découpé : Œuvres uniques sur papier

27 avril 2022 - 31 octobre 2023
Andy Warhol : le glamour à fleur de peau
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Andy Warhol : le glamour à fleur de peau

27 octobre 2021 - 30 septembre 2023
Une belle époque : l
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Une belle époque : l'art américain à l'âge d'or

24 juin 2021 - 31 août 2023
Alexander Calder : Un univers de peinture
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Alexander Calder : Un univers de peinture

10 août 2022 - 31 août 2023
C
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C'était acceptable dans les années 80

27 avril 2021 - 31 août 2023
N.C. Wyeth : Une décennie de peinture
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N.C. Wyeth : Une décennie de peinture

29 septembre 2022 - 31 mars 2023
Paul Jenkins : Colorer le phénomène
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Paul Jenkins : Colorer le phénomène

27 décembre 2019 - 31 mars 2023
Georgia O
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Georgia O'Keeffe et Marsden Hartley : Esprits modernes

1er février 2022 - 28 février 2023
Norman Zammitt : La progression de la couleur
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Norman Zammitt : La progression de la couleur

19 mars 2020 - 28 février 2023
Maîtres figuratifs des Amériques
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Maîtres figuratifs des Amériques

Du 4 janvier au 12 février 2023
Expressionnisme abstrait : Transcender le radical
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Expressionnisme abstrait : Transcender le radical

12 janvier 2022 - 31 janvier 2023
James Rosenquist : une explosion de puissance
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James Rosenquist : une explosion de puissance

7 juin 2021 - 31 janvier 2023
Ma propre peau : Frida Kahlo et Diego Rivera
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Ma propre peau : Frida Kahlo et Diego Rivera

Du 16 juin au 31 décembre 2022
Josef Albers : Le cœur de la peinture
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Josef Albers : Le cœur de la peinture

12 mai - 30 novembre 2022
Expressionnisme abstrait : Les femmes persistantes
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Expressionnisme abstrait : Les femmes persistantes

1er novembre 2021 - 31 août 2022
Alexander Calder : Peindre le cosmos
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Alexander Calder : Peindre le cosmos

Du 2 mars au 12 août 2022
La matière Mercedes : Une qualité miraculeuse
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La matière Mercedes : Une qualité miraculeuse

22 mars 2021 - 30 juin 2022
Moore ! Moore ! Moore ! Henry Moore et la sculpture
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Moore ! Moore ! Moore ! Henry Moore et la sculpture

3 mars 2021 - 30 avril 2022
Elaine et Willem de Kooning : Peindre dans la lumière
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Elaine et Willem de Kooning : Peindre dans la lumière

3 août 2021 - 31 janvier 2022
Polaroïds d
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Polaroïds d'Andy Warhol : Tout ce qui brille

10 décembre 2020 - 31 décembre 2021
American Eye : Sélections de la collection Pardee
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American Eye : Sélections de la collection Pardee

28 février - 31 décembre 2021
Polaroïds d
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Polaroïds d'Andy Warhol : Ars Longa

10 décembre 2020 - 31 décembre 2021
Polaroïds d'Andy Warhol : Moi, moi et moi
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Polaroïds d'Andy Warhol : Moi, moi et moi

10 décembre 2020 - 31 décembre 2021
Polaroïds d
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Polaroïds d'Andy Warhol : Apportez-le sur la piste

10 décembre 2020 - 31 décembre 2021
La collection Gloria Luria
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La collection Gloria Luria

16 mars 2020 - 31 octobre 2021
Pop Figures : Mel Ramos et Tom Wesselmann
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Pop Figures : Mel Ramos et Tom Wesselmann

26 mars 2020 - 30 avril 2021
Les joyaux de l
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Les joyaux de l'impressionnisme et de l'art moderne

19 février - 31 octobre 2020
Cool Britannia : Les jeunes artistes britanniques
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Cool Britannia : Les jeunes artistes britanniques

2 avril - 30 septembre 2020
Les Californiens
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Les Californiens

1er novembre 2019 - 14 février 2020
Sam Francis: Du crépuscule à l
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Sam Francis: Du crépuscule à l'aube

15 novembre 2018 - 29 avril 2019
N.C. Wyeth: Peintures et illustrations
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N.C. Wyeth: Peintures et illustrations

1er février - 31 mai 2018
Les peintures de Sir Winston Churchill
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Les peintures de Sir Winston Churchill

21 mars - 30 mai 2018
Ferrari et Futuristes : Un regard italien sur la vitesse
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Ferrari et Futuristes : Un regard italien sur la vitesse

21 novembre 2016 - 30 janvier 2017
Alexandre Calder
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Alexandre Calder

21 novembre 2015 - 28 mai 2016
Maîtres de l
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Maîtres de l'impressionnisme californien

22 novembre 2014 - 23 mai 2015
Painterly Abstraction : Sphères d
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Painterly Abstraction : Sphères d'AbEx

25 novembre 2011 - 31 mai 2012
Maîtres de l
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Maîtres de l'impressionnisme et de l'art moderne

Du 20 novembre 2010 au 25 septembre 2011
Picasso
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Picasso

Du 20 novembre 2009 au 25 mai 2010

OEUVRED-ŒUVRE SUR LA VUE

Le 15 mai 1886, le manifeste visuel d'un nouveau mouvement artistique a vu le jour lorsque Georges Seurat a dévoilé son œuvre phare, Un dimanche après-midi sur l'île de la Grande Jatte, à l'occasion de la huitième exposition impressionniste. Seurat peut se targuer d'être le premier "impressionniste scientifique", travaillant d'une manière qui sera connue sous le nom de pointillisme ou de divisionnisme. C'est cependant son ami et confident, Paul Signac, âgé de 24 ans, et leur dialogue constant qui ont conduit à une collaboration dans la compréhension de la physique de la lumière et de la couleur, et au style qui en a résulté. Signac était un peintre impressionniste sans formation, mais extrêmement talentueux, dont le tempérament était parfaitement adapté à la rigueur et à la discipline requises pour réaliser le travail laborieux et minutieux du pinceau et de la couleur. Signac assimile rapidement la technique. Il est également le témoin des deux années de travail ardu de Seurat, qui construit des myriades de couches de points de couleur non mélangés sur La Grande Jatte, une toile aux dimensions colossales. Ensemble, Signac, l'extraverti effronté, et Seurat, l'introverti secret, étaient sur le point de renverser le cours de l'impressionnisme et de changer le cours de l'art moderne.

PAUL SIGNAC

Led by a triumvirate of painters of the American Scene, Thomas Hart Benton, John Steuart Curry, and Grant Wood took on the task of exploring, defining, and celebrating the Midwest as a credible entity within the geographical, political, and mythological landscape of the United States. Their populist works were figurative and narrative-driven, and they gained widespread popularity among a Depression-weary American public. The landscapes Grant Wood painted, and the lithographs marketed by Associated American Artists were comforting reminders of traditional Midwestern values and the simplicity of country life. Yet, Wood's most iconic works, including American Gothic, were to be viewed through the lens of elusive narratives and witty ironies that reflect an artist who delighted in sharing his charming and humorous perspective on farm life. <br><br>In 1930, Wood achieved national fame and recognition with American Gothic, a fictionalized depiction of his sister, Nan, and his family dentist. Frequently regarded as the most famous American painting of the twentieth century, to fully grasp American Gothic's essential nature, one must recognize Wood's profound connection to his Iowan roots, a bond that borders on a singular fixation and the often-brutal confrontation between the moral and cultural rigidity of Midwest isolationism and the standards that prevailed elsewhere in America. This war of values and morality became dominant throughout Wood's oeuvre. Their fascination with American Gothic may have mystified the public, but the story, told in the attitude of a farmer and his wife, is as lean and brittle as the pitchfork he carries. Their attitude, as defiant as it is confrontational, is an unflinching dare to uppity gallery-goers to judge their immaculate well-scrubbed farm. American Gothic became an overnight sensation, an ambiguous national icon often interpreted as a self-effacing parody of midwestern life. Yet it also served as an unflinching mirror to urban elite attitudes and their often-derisive view of heartland values and way of life. In Grant Wood's hands, the people of the Midwest have stiffened and soured, their rectitude implacable.<br> <br>Portrait of Nan is Grant Wood's most intimate work. He may have been motivated to paint it to make amends for the significant scrutiny and harsh treatment his sister received as American Gothic's sternly posed female. Grant poured his heart into it as a sign of sibling love. Intent upon painting her as straightforward and simply as possible so as not to invite unintended interpretations, Wood's deep attachment to the portrait was significant enough for him to think of it as having irreplaceable value. When he moved from Cedar Rapids to Iowa City in 1935, he designed his entire living room around the work. It occupied the place of honor above the fireplace and was the only painting he refused to sell. <br> <br>The lithograph July Fifteenth, issued in 1938, proves his mystical vision of the Iowan heartland is anything but a pitchfork approach. Drawings assumed central importance in Wood's output, and this work is executed in meticulous detail, proving his drawings were at least as complex, if not more so, than his paintings. The surface of the present work takes on an elaborate, decorative rhythm, echoed throughout the land that is soft, verdant, and fertile. Structurally, it alludes in equal measure to the geometry of modern art and the decorative patterning of folk-art traditions. This is a magical place, a fulsome display of an idealized version of an eternal, lovely, and benign heartland. <br><br>The Young Artist, an en plein air sketch, may have been produced during, or slightly after, what Wood called his "palette-knife stage" that consumed him in 1925. Having not yet traveled to Munich where, in 1928, he worked on a stain-glass window commission and came under the influence of the Northern Renaissance painters that sparked his interest in the compositional severity and detailed technique associated with his mature works, here, he worked quickly, and decisively. The view is from a hilltop at Kenwood Park that overlooks the Cedar River Valley near Cedar Rapids, where he built a house for his sister, Nan.

GRANT WOOD

Cottonwood Tree (Near Abiquiu), New Mexico (1943) by celebrated American artist Georgia O’Keeffe is exemplary of the airier, more naturalistic style that the desert inspired in her. O’Keeffe had great affinity for the distinctive beauty of the Southwest, and made her home there among the spindly trees, dramatic vistas, and bleached animal skulls that she so frequently painted. O’Keeffe took up residence at Ghost Ranch, a dude ranch twelve miles outside of the village of Abiquiú in northern New Mexico and painted this cottonwood tree around there. The softer style befitting this subject is a departure from her bold architectural landscapes and jewel-toned flowers.<br><br>The cottonwood tree is abstracted into soft patches of verdant greens through which more delineated branches are seen, spiraling in space against pockets of blue sky. The modeling of the trunk and delicate energy in the leaves carry forward past experimentations with the regional trees of the Northeast that had captivated O’Keeffe years earlier: maples, chestnuts, cedars, and poplars, among others. Two dramatic canvases from 1924, Autumn Trees, The Maple and The Chestnut Grey, are early instances of lyrical and resolute centrality, respectively. As seen in these early tree paintings, O’Keeffe exaggerated the sensibility of her subject with color and form.<br><br>In her 1974 book, O’Keeffe explained: “The meaning of a word— to me— is not as exact as the meaning of a color. Color and shapes make a more definite statement than words.” Her exacting, expressive color intrigued. The Precisionist painter Charles Demuth described how, in O’Keeffe’s work, “each color almost regains the fun it must have felt within itself on forming the first rainbow” (As quoted in C. Eldridge, Georgia O’Keeffe, New York, 1991, p. 33). As well, congruities between forms knit together her oeuvre. Subjects like hills and petals undulate alike, while antlers, trees, and tributaries correspond in their branching morphology.<br><br>The sinewy contours and gradated hues characteristic of O’Keeffe find an incredible range across decades of her tree paintings. In New Mexico, O’Keeffe returned to the cottonwood motif many times, and the seasonality of this desert tree inspired many forms. The vernal thrill of new growth was channeled into spiraling compositions like Spring Tree No.1 (1945). Then, cottonwood trees turned a vivid autumnal yellow provided a breathtaking compliment to the blue backdrop of Mount Pedernal. The ossified curves of Dead Cottonweed Tree (1943) contain dramatic pools of light and dark, providing a foil to the warm, breathing quality of this painting, Cottonwood Tree (Near Abiquiu). The aural quality of this feathered cottonwood compels a feeling guided by O’Keeffe’s use of form of color.

GÉORGIE O'KEEFFE

<br>In Diego Rivera’s portrait of Enriqueta Dávila, the artist asserts a Mexicanidad, a quality of Mexican-ness, in the work along with his strong feelings towards the sitter. Moreover, this painting is unique amongst his portraiture in its use of symbolism, giving us a strong if opaque picture of the relationship between artist and sitter.<br><br>Enriqueta, a descendent of the prominent Goldbaum family, was married to the theater entrepreneur, José María Dávila. The two were close friends with Rivera, and the artist initially requested to paint Enriqueta’s portrait. Enriqueta found the request unconventional and relented on the condition that Rivera paints her daughter, Enriqueta “Quetita”. Rivera captures the spirit of the mother through the use of duality in different sections of the painting, from the floorboards to her hands, and even the flowers. Why the split in the horizon of the floorboard? Why the prominent cross while Enriqueta’s family is Jewish? Even her pose is interesting, showcasing a woman in control of her own power, highlighted by her hand on her hip which Rivera referred to as a claw, further complicating our understanding of her stature.<br><br>This use of flowers, along with her “rebozo” or shawl, asserts a Mexican identity. Rivera was adept at including and centering flowers in his works which became a kind of signature device. The flowers show bromeliads and roselles; the former is epiphytic and the latter known as flor de jamaica and often used in hibiscus tea and aguas frescas. There is a tension then between these two flowers, emphasizing the complicated relationship between Enriqueta and Rivera. On the one hand, Rivera demonstrates both his and the sitter’s Mexican identity despite the foreign root of Enriqueta’s family but there may be more pointed meaning revealing Rivera’s feelings to the subject. The flowers, as they often do in still life paintings, may also refer to the fleeting nature of life and beauty. The portrait for her daughter shares some similarities from the use of shawl and flowers, but through simple changes in gestures and type and placement of flowers, Rivera illuminates a stronger personality in Enriqueta and a more dynamic relationship as filtered through his lens.<br><br>A closer examination of even her clothing reveals profound meaning. Instead of a dress more in line for a socialite, Rivera has Enriqueta in a regional dress from Jalisco, emphasizing both of their Mexican identities. On the other hand, her coral jewelry, repeated in the color of her shoes, hints at multiple meanings from foreignness and exoticism to protection and vitality. From Ancient Egypt to Classical Rome to today, coral has been used for jewelry and to have been believed to have properties both real and symbolic. Coral jewelry is seen in Renaissance paintings indicating the vitality and purity of woman or as a protective amulet for infants. It is also used as a reminder, when paired with the infant Jesus, of his future sacrifice. Diego’s use of coral recalls these Renaissance portraits, supported by the plain background of the painting and the ribbon indicating the maker and date similar to Old Master works.<br><br>When combined in the portrait of Enriqueta, we get a layered and tense building of symbolism. Rivera both emphasizes her Mexican identity but also her foreign roots. He symbolizes her beauty and vitality but look closely at half of her face and it is as if Rivera has painted his own features onto hers. The richness of symbolism hints at the complex relationship between artist and sitter.

RIVERA DIEGO

WILLEM DE KOONING - Femme dans une barque - huile sur papier couché sur masonite - 47 1/2 x 36 1/4 in.

WILLEM DE KOONING

Selon le catalogue raisonné compilé par le Brandywine River Museum of Art, le dessin préliminaire pour Puritan Cod Fishers a été achevé par N. C Wyeth avant sa mort en octobre 1945. L'entrée présente une image de l'esquisse ainsi que les inscriptions de l'artiste et son titre, Puritan Cod Fishers, qualifié par le catalogue d'"alternate" (alternatif). Quoi qu'il en soit, cette grande toile est une œuvre unique dont Andrew Wyeth a rappelé plus tard qu'elle avait été peinte uniquement de sa main, une collaboration délimitée de la conception et de la composition du père, concrétisée par l'exécution remarquable du fils. Pour Andrew, cela a dû être une expérience profondément ressentie et émouvante. Compte tenu de l'attention portée par son père aux détails et à l'authenticité, les lignes de la petite embarcation à voile représentent une échalote, utilisée au XVIe siècle. D'un autre côté, Andrew a probablement approfondi les teintes de la mer agitée plus que ne l'aurait fait son père, un choix qui accentue de manière appropriée la nature périlleuse de la tâche.

Andrew Wyeth & N. C. Wyeth

Alexander Calder was a key figure in the development of abstract sculpture and is renowned for his groundbreaking work in kinetic art; he is one of the most influential artists of the Twentieth Century. "Prelude to Man-Eater" is a delicately balanced standing sculpture that responds to air currents, creating a constantly changing and dynamic visual experience.<br><br>Calder's Standing Mobiles were a result of his continuous experimentation with materials, form, and balance. This Standing Mobile is a historically significant prelude to a larger work commissioned in 1945 by Alfred Barr, the first director of the Museum of Modern Art in New York. "Prelude to Maneater" is designed to be viewed from multiple angles, encouraging viewers to walk around and interact with it.<br><br>The present work is a formal study for Man-Eater With Pennant (1945), part of the permanent collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The work is also represented in "Sketches for Mobiles: Prelude to Man-Eater; Starfish; Octopus", which is in the permanent collection of the Harvard Fogg Museum.<br><br>Calder's mobiles and stabiles can be found in esteemed private collections and the collections of major museums worldwide, including the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, the Art Institute of Chicago, and the Tate Gallery in London among others.

ALEXANDRE CALDER

Between Île-de-France and Burgundy and on the edge of the Fontainebleau Forest lies the medieval village of Moret-sur-Loing, established in the 12th century. When Alfred Sisley described its character to Monet in a letter dated 31 August 1881 as “a chocolate-box landscape…” he meant it as a memento of enticement; that its keep, the ramparts, the church, the fortified gates, and the ornate facades nestled along the river were, for a painter, a setting of unmatched charm. An ancient church, always the most striking townscape feature along the Seine Valley, would be a presence in Sisley’s townscape views as it was for Corot, and for Monet at Vétheuil. But unlike Monet whose thirty views of Rouen Cathedral were executed so he could trace the play of light and shadow across the cathedral façade and capture the ephemeral nature of moment-to-moment changes of light and atmosphere, Sisley set out to affirm the permanent nature of the church of Notre-Dame at Moret-sur-Loing.  Monet’s sole concern was air and light, and Sisley’s appears to be an homage keepsake. The painting exudes respect for the original architects and builders of a structure so impregnable and resolute, it stood then as it did in those medieval times, and which for us, stands today, as it will, for time immemorial.<br><br>Nevertheless, Sisley strived to show the changing appearance of the motif through a series of atmospheric changes. He gave the works titles such as “In Sunshine”, “Under Frost”, and “In Rain” and exhibited them as a group at the Salon du Champ-de-Mars in 1894, factors that suggest he thought of them as serial interpretations. Nevertheless, unlike Monet’s work, l’église de Moret, le Soir reveals that Sisley chose to display the motif within a spatial context that accentuates its compositional attributes — the plunging perspective of the narrow street at left, the strong diagonal recession of the building lines as a counterbalance to the right, and the imposing weight of the stony building above the line of sight.

ALFRED SISLEY

N.C. Wyeth’s extraordinary skills as an illustrator were borne of impeccable draftsmanship and as a painter, his warmly rich, harmonious sense of color, and ability to capture the quality of light itself. But it is his unmatched artistry in vivifying story and character with a powerful sense of mood that we admire most of all — the ability to transport himself to the world and time of his creation and to convey it with a beguiling sense of conviction. That ability is as apparent in the compositional complexities of Treasure Island’s “One More Step, Mr. Hands!” as it is here, in the summary account of a square-rigged, seventeenth-century merchant ship tossed upon the seas. The Coming of the Mayflower in 1620 is a simple statement of observable facts, yet Wyeth’s impeccable genius as an illustrator imbues it with the bracing salt air and taste that captures the adventuresome spirit of the men and women who are largely credited with the founding of America. That spirit is carried on the wind and tautly billowed sails, the jaunty heeling of the ship at the nose of a stiff gale, the thrusting, streamed-limned clouds, and the gulls jauntily arranged to celebrate an arrival as they are the feathered angels of providence guiding it to safe harbor.<br><br>The Coming of the Mayflower in 1620 was based on two studies, a composition drawing in graphite and a small presentation painting. The finished mural appears to have been installed in 1941.

N.C. WYETH

TOM WESSELMANN - Smoker No. 21 - huile sur toile façonnée - 74 1/2 x 67 1/2 in.

TOM WESSELMANN

Trained as a woodcarver, Emil Nolde was almost 30 years old before he made his first paintings. The early paintings resembled his drawings and woodcuts: grotesque figures with bold lines and strong contrasts. The style was new, and it inspired the nascent movement Die Brücke (The Bridge), whose members invited Nolde to join them in 1906.  But, it was not until the garden became his locus operandi by 1915 that he built upon his mastery of contrasting luminosities to focus on color as the supreme means of expression.  Later, Nolde claimed “color is strength, strength is life,” and he could not have better characterized why his flower paintings reinvigorate our perception of color.<br><br>Much of the strength of Nolde’s dramatic, Wagnerian-like color sensibilities is the effect of staging primary colors, such as the deep reds and golden yellows of Sonnenblumen, Abend II, against a somber palette. The contrast highlights and deepens the luminosity of the flowers, not just visually, but emotionally as well. In 1937, when Nolde’s art was rejected, confiscated, and defiled, his paintings were paraded as “degenerate art” throughout Nazi Germany in dimly lit galleries. Despite that treatment, Nolde’s status as a degenerate artist gave his art more breathing space because he seized the opportunity to produce more than 1,300 watercolors, which he called “unpainted pictures.” No novice in handling watercolor, his free-flowing style of painting had been a hallmark of his highly-charge, transparent washes since 1918. Sonnenblumen, Abend II, painted in 1944, is a rare wartime oil. He let his imagination run wild with this work, and his utilization of wet-on-wet techniques heightened the drama of each petal.<br><br>Nolde’s intense preoccupation with color and flowers, particularly sunflowers, reflects his continuing devotion to van Gogh.  He was aware of van Gogh as early as 1899 and, during the 1920s and early 1930s, visited several exhibitions of the Dutch artist’s work.  They shared a profound love of nature. Nolde’s dedication to expression and the symbolic use of color found fullness in the sunflower subject, and it became a personal symbol for him, as it did for Van Gogh.

EMIL NOLDE

An outstanding example of Churchill’s North African scenes, one in which he deftly captures the scenery and light that his artistic mentor, John Lavery, had told him about in the mid 1930s.  Another artist mentor, Walter Sickert, taught Churchill how to project photo images directly on to a canvas as an aid in painting, a technique used to advantage in this instance.  The Studio Archives at Chartwell include 5 photographs, one of the camel and four others, that Churchill used as aids.<br><br>With the visual aids, Churchill could focus on the vibrant colors, the tan of the sand and buildings contrasting with the brilliant blue skies, splashes of green adding energy to the painting. A different Marrakech scene, “Tower of the Koutoubia Mosque”, set an auction record for Churchill when it sold in 2021 for $11 million USD.

SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL (EN)

Tom Wesselmann was a leader of the Pop Art movement. He is best remembered for large-scale works, including his Great American Nude series, in which Wesselmann combined sensual imagery with everyday objects depicted in bold and vibrant colors. As he developed in his practice, Wesselmann grew beyond the traditional canvas format and began creating shaped canvases and aluminum cut-outs that often functioned as sculptural drawings. Continuing his interest in playing with scale, Wesselmann began focusing more closely on the body parts that make up his nudes. He created his Mouth series and his Bedroom series in which particular elements, rather than the entire sitter, become the focus.<br> <br>Bedroom Breast (2004) combines these techniques, using vivid hues painted on cut-out aluminum. The work was a special commission for a private collector's residence, and the idea of a bedroom breast piece in oil on 3-D cut-out aluminum was one Wesselmann had been working with for many years prior to this work's creation. The current owner of the piece believed in Wesselmann's vision and loved the idea of bringing the subject to his home.<br><br>It's one of, if not the last, piece Wesselmann completed before he passed away. The present work is the only piece of its kind - there has never been an oil on aluminum in 3D at this scale or of this iconography.  

TOM WESSELMANN

Au début des années 1870, Winslow Homer a souvent peint des scènes de la vie à la campagne près d'un petit hameau agricole réputé depuis des générations pour ses remarquables champs de blé, situé entre la rivière Hudson et les Catskills, dans l'État de New York. Aujourd'hui, Hurley est bien plus célèbre pour avoir inspiré l'une des plus grandes œuvres d'Homer, Snap the Whip, peinte au cours de l'été 1872. Parmi les nombreuses autres peintures inspirées par la région, Girl Standing in the Wheatfield est riche en sentiments, mais sans sentimentalisme excessif. Elle est directement liée à une étude peinte en France en 1866 et intitulée In the Wheatfields (Dans les champs de blé), ainsi qu'à une autre étude peinte l'année suivante, après son retour en Amérique. Mais Homère aurait sans doute été le plus fier de celle-ci. Il s'agit d'un portrait, d'une étude de costume, d'une peinture de genre dans la grande tradition de la peinture pastorale européenne, et d'un tour de force atmosphérique dramatiquement rétro-éclairé, imprégné de la lumière de l'heure qui s'estompe rapidement, avec des notes lambda et fleuries et des touches d'épis de blé. En 1874, Homer a envoyé quatre tableaux à l'exposition de la National Academy of Design. L'une d'entre elles était intitulée "Girl". Ne serait-ce pas celle-ci ?

WINSLOW HOMER

Painted from an unusually high vantage, “Riviera Coast Scene” vividly conveys the formidable distance and breadth of the scene from the perch where he set his easel.  Interestingly, Paul Rafferty did not include this painting in his book Winston Churchill: Painting on the French Riviera, believing it could likely be a scene from the Italian Lake District, where Churchill also painted in the same time period.<br><br>Paintings by Churchill can function as a glimpse into his extensive travels and his colorful life. Churchill most likely painted “Riviera Coast Scene” during a holiday at Chateau de l’Horizon, home of Maxine Elliot, a friend of his mother. Elliot, originally from Rockland, Maine, was a successful actress and socialite.<br><br>Within this painting, we see the influence of the Impressionists who utilized unusual viewpoints, modeled after Japanese woodblock prints, but also evidence of their attempts to push the boundaries of the landscape genre

SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL (EN)

Alexander Calder executed a surprising number of oil paintings during the second half of the 1940s and early 1950s. By this time, the shock of his 1930 visit to Mondrian’s studio, where he was impressed not by the paintings but by the environment, had developed into an artistic language of Calder’s own. So, as Calder was painting The Cross in 1948, he was already on the cusp of international recognition and on his way to winning the XX VI Venice Biennale’s grand prize for sculpture in 1952. Working on his paintings in concert with his sculptural practice, Calder approached both mediums with the same formal language and mastery of shape and color.<br><br>Calder was deeply intrigued by the unseen forces that keep objects in motion. Taking this interest from sculpture to canvas, we see that Calder built a sense of torque within The Cross by shifting its planes and balance. Using these elements, he created implied motion suggesting that the figure is pressing forward or even descending from the skies above. The Cross’s determined momentum is further amplified by details such as the subject’s emphatically outstretched arms, the fist-like curlicue vector on the left, and the silhouetted serpentine figure.<br><br>Calder also adopts a strong thread of poetic abandon throughout The Cross’s surface. It resonates with his good friend Miró’s hieratic and distinctly personal visual language, but it is all Calder in the effective animation of this painting’s various elements. No artist has earned more poetic license than Calder, and throughout his career, the artist remained convivially flexible in his understanding of form and composition. He even welcomed the myriad interpretations of others, writing in 1951, “That others grasp what I have in mind seems unessential, at least as long as they have something else in theirs.”<br><br>Either way, it is important to remember that The Cross was painted shortly after the upheaval of the Second World War and to some appears to be a sobering reflection of the time. Most of all, The Cross proves that Alexander Calder loaded his brush first to work out ideas about form, structure, relationships in space, and most importantly, movement.

ALEXANDRE CALDER

The frame of reference for Irish American Sean Scully’s signature blocks and stripes is vast. From Malevich’s central premise that geometry can provide the means for universal understanding to Rothko’s impassioned approach to color and rendering of the dramatic sublime, Scully learned how to condense the splendor of the natural world into simple modes of color, light, and composition. Born in Dublin in 1945 and London-raised, Scully was well-schooled in figurative drawing when he decided to catch the spirit of his lodestar, Henri Matisse, by visiting Morocco in 1969. He was captivated by the dazzling tessellated mosaics and richly dyed fabrics and began to paint grids and stipes of color. Subsequent adventures provided further inspiration as the play of intense light on the reflective surfaces of Mayan ruins and the ancient slabs of stone at Stonehenge brought the sensation of light, space, and geometric movement to Scully’s paintings. The ability to trace the impact of Scully’s travels throughout his paintings reaffirms the value of abstract art as a touchstone for real-life experience.<br><br><br>Painted in rich, deep hues and layered, nuanced surfaces, Grey Red is both poetic and full of muscular formalism. Scully appropriately refers to these elemental forms as ‘bricks,’ suggesting the formal calculations of an architect. As he explained, “these relationships that I see in the street doorways, in windows between buildings, and in the traces of structures that were once full of life, I take for my work. I use these colors and forms and put them together in a way that perhaps reminds you of something, though you’re not sure of that” (David Carrier, Sean Scully, 2004, pg. 98). His approach is organic, less formulaic; intuitive painter’s choices are layering one color upon another so that contrasting hues and colors vibrate with subliminal energy. Diebenkorn comes to mind in his pursuit of radiant light. But here, the radiant bands of terracotta red, gray, taupe, and black of Grey Red resonate with deep, smoldering energy and evoke far more affecting passion than you would think it could impart. As his good friend, Bono wrote, “Sean approaches the canvas like a kickboxer, a plasterer, a builder. The quality of painting screams of a life being lived.”

SEAN SCULLY (EN)

Le monde de Marc Chagall ne peut être contenu ou limité par les étiquettes que nous lui attachons. C'est un monde d'images et de significations qui forment leur propre discours splendidement mystique. Les Mariés sous le baldaquin a été entrepris alors que l'artiste entrait dans sa 90e année, un homme qui avait connu la tragédie et le conflit, mais qui n'avait jamais oublié les moments de plaisir de la vie. Ici, les délices rêveurs d'un mariage dans un village russe, avec ses arrangements de participants bien rodés, nous sont présentés avec un esprit si joyeux et une innocence si gaie qu'il est impossible de résister à son charme. En utilisant une émulsion dorée combinant l'huile et la gouache opaque à base d'eau, la chaleur, le bonheur et l'optimisme du positivisme habituel de Chagall sont enveloppés d'un éclat lumineux suggérant l'influence des icônes religieuses à feuilles d'or ou de la peinture du début de la Renaissance qui cherchait à donner l'impression d'une lumière divine ou d'une illumination spirituelle. L'utilisation d'une combinaison d'huile et de gouache peut s'avérer difficile. Mais ici, dans Les Mariés sous le baldaquin, Chagall l'utilise pour donner à la scène une qualité d'un autre monde, presque comme si elle venait de se matérialiser à partir de l'œil de son esprit. La finesse de sa texture donne l'impression que la lumière émane de l'œuvre elle-même et confère une qualité spectrale aux personnages qui flottent dans le ciel.

MARC CHAGALL

Located on the French Riviera between Nice and Monte Carlo, the Bay of Eze is renowned for its stunning location and spectacular views. As you can see on pages 80-81 of Rafferty's book, this painting skillfully captures the dizzying heights, set just west of Lou Sueil, the home of Jacques and Consuelo Balsan, close friends of Winston and Clementine.<br> <br>The painting manipulates perspective and depth, a nod to the dramatic shifts of artists including Monet and Cézanne, who challenged traditional vantage points of landscapes. The portrait (i.e. vertical) orientation of the canvas combined with the trees, and the rhyming coastline channels the viewer’s gaze. The perceived tilting of the water's plane imbues the painting with dynamic tension.

SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL (EN)

Tom Wesselmann will undoubtedly be remembered for associating his erotic themes with the colors of the American flag. But Wesselmann had considerable gifts as a draftsman, and the line was his principal preoccupation, first as a cartoonist and later as an ardent admirer of Matisse. That he also pioneered a method of turning drawings into laser-cut steel wall reliefs proved a revelation. He began to focus ever more on drawing for the sake of drawing, enchanted that the new medium could be lifted and held: “It really is like being able to pick up a delicate line drawing from the paper.”<br><br>The Steel Drawings caused both excitement and confusion in the art world. After acquiring one of the ground-breaking works in 1985, the Whitney Museum of American Art wrote Wesselmann wondering if it should be cataloged as a drawing or a sculpture. The work had caused such a stir that when Eric Fischl visited Wesselmann at his studio and saw steel-cut works for the first time, he remembered feeling jealous. He wanted to try it but dared not. It was clear: ‘Tom owned the technique completely.’<br><br>Wesselmann owed much of that technique to his year-long collaboration with metalwork fabricator Alfred Lippincott. Together, in 1984 they honed a method for cutting the steel with a laser that provided the precision he needed to show the spontaneity of his sketches. Wesselmann called it ‘the best year of my life’, elated at the results that he never fully achieved with aluminum that required each shape be hand-cut.  “I anticipated how exciting it would be for me to get a drawing back in steel. I could hold it in my hands. I could pick it up by the lines…it was so exciting…a kind of near ecstasy, anyway, but there’s really been something about the new work that grabbed me.”<br><br>Bedroom Brunette with Irises is a Steel Drawing masterwork that despite its uber-generous scale, utilizes tight cropping to provide an unimposing intimacy while maintaining a free and spontaneous quality. The figure’s outstretched arms and limbs and body intertwine with the petals and the interior elements providing a flowing investigative foray of black lines and white ‘drop out’ shapes provided by the wall. It recalls Matisse and any number of his reclining odalisque paintings. Wesselmann often tested monochromatic values to discover the extent to which color would transform his hybrid objects into newly developed Steel Drawing works and, in this case, continued with a color steel-cut version of the composition Bedroom Blonde with Irises (1987) and later still, in 1993 with a large-scale drawing in charcoal and pastel on paper.

TOM WESSELMANN

The Pop Art Movement is notable for its rewriting of Art History and the idea of what could be considered a work of art. Larry Rivers association with Pop-Art and the New York School set him aside as one of the great American painters of the Post-War period.  <br><br>In addition to being a visual artist, Larry Rivers was a jazz saxophonist who studied at the Juilliard School of Music from 1945-1946. This painting's subject echoes the artists' interest in Jazz and the musical scene in New York City, particularly Greenwich Village and the Lower East Side.  <br><br>“Untitled” (1958) is notable bas the same owner has held it since the work was acquired directly from the artist several decades ago. This work is from the apex of the artists' career in New York and could comfortably hang in a museum's permanent collection.

RIVIÈRES LARGES

Still lifes like Oranges and Lemons (C 455) give us an insight to the rich and colorful life of Churchill, just as his landscapes and seascapes do. Churchill painted Oranges and Lemons at La Pausa. Churchill would often frequent La Pausa as the guest of his literary agent, Emery Reves and his wife, Wendy.  Reves purchased the home from Coco Chanel.  While other members of the Churchill family did not share his enthusiasm, Churchill and his daughter Sarah loved the place, which Churchill affectionately called “LaPausaland”.<br><br>To avoid painting outside on a chilly January morning, Wendy Reves arranged the fruit for Churchill to paint. Surrounded by the Reves’s superb collection of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist works, including a number of paintings by Paul Cézanne, Oranges and Lemons illuminates Churchill’s relationships and the influence of Cézanne, who he admired. The painting, like Churchill, has lived a colorful life, exhibited at both the 1959 Royal Academy of Art exhibition of his paintings and the 1965 New York World’s Fair.

SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL (EN)

Il n'est pas difficile de comprendre comment la brillante disposition en deux rangées de quatre lettres de Robert Indiana a pu contribuer à renforcer un mouvement au cours des années 1960. Il est né d'une exposition profondément ressentie à la religion et d'un ami et mentor, Ellsworth Kelly, dont le style dur et les couleurs sensuelles et non accentuées ont fait une impression durable. Mais comme Indiana l'a déclaré, c'est un moment de chance qui s'est produit lorsque "l'amour m'a mordu" et que le dessin lui est apparu net et précis. Indiana a bien sûr soumis le dessin à de nombreuses épreuves, puis le logo a commencé à apparaître un peu partout. Le message, qui se traduit le mieux par une sculpture, se trouve dans des villes du monde entier et a été traduit en plusieurs langues, notamment en italien, sous le nom de "Amor", dont le "O" est également incliné vers la droite. Mais au lieu d'être frappée par le pied du "L", cette version confère au "A" qui la surplombe un effet de vacillement magnifiquement mis en scène. Elle donne une impression nouvelle, mais non moins profonde, de l'amour et de sa nature émotionnellement chargée.  Dans les deux cas, le "O" incliné de Love confère de l'instabilité à un dessin par ailleurs stable, une projection profonde de la critique implicite d'Indiana de "la sentimentalité souvent creuse associée au mot, suggérant métaphoriquement un désir non partagé et une déception plutôt qu'une affection saccharine" (Robert Indiana's Best : A Mini Retrospective, New York Times, 24 mai 2018). La répétition, bien sûr, a la mauvaise habitude d'atténuer notre appréciation du génie de la simplicité et du design révolutionnaire. Tard dans sa vie, Indiana déplorait que "c'était une idée merveilleuse, mais aussi une terrible erreur. Elle est devenue trop populaire. Et il y a des gens qui n'aiment pas la popularité". Mais nous, habitants d'un monde en proie à la discorde et à la tourmente, nous vous remercions. "Love" et ses nombreuses versions nous rappellent avec force notre capacité à aimer, et c'est là notre meilleur espoir éternel d'un avenir meilleur.

ROBERT INDIANA (EN)

JEAN-MICHEL BASQUIAT - Sans titre (Anatomie de pigeon) - huile, mine de plomb et craie sur papier - 22 x 30 in.

JEAN-MICHEL BASQUIAT

PIERRE BONNARD - Soleil Couchant - huile sur toile - 14 1/2 x 22 1/2 in.

PIERRE BONNARD

Née à Atlanta en 1981 et installée à Brooklyn, Shara Hughes est célèbre pour son approche particulière de la peinture de paysage, combinant des influences historiques avec des sensibilités contemporaines. Sa palette de couleurs jubilatoires rappelle des maîtres comme Henri Matisse, avec l'audace visuelle et stylisée de David Hockney, tout en reconnaissant une tradition plus large de la peinture de paysage, notamment les influences de l'art nouveau, du fauvisme et de l'expressionnisme allemand. All the Pretty Faces est une synthèse moderne des mouvements artistiques historiques et de l'imagerie numérique actuelle, présentant aux spectateurs des mondes captivants et inventés qui font le lien entre le passé et le présent. Elle évoque également l'une des citations les plus frappantes de Hughes à propos de ses paysages novateurs remplis d'éléments fantastiques : "J'ai souvent pensé aux fleurs et aux arbres comme à des figures. Parfois, même une vague ou un soleil dans la peinture prend une personnalité, donc cela varie en fonction de la façon dont l'œuvre est réalisée."

SHARA HUGHES

Dans « Nu descendant un escalier n° 2 », Mel Ramos entremêle de manière ludique l’héritage du chef-d’œuvre moderniste de Marcel Duchamp avec l’esthétique vibrante du Pop Art, créant une réinterprétation intelligente et visuellement stimulante. En associant le mouvement abstrait de Duchamp à son style pin-up caractéristique, Ramos crée un dialogue dynamique entre les traditions vénérées des beaux-arts et les qualités graphiques audacieuses de l’imagerie commerciale. Cette œuvre illustre l’habileté de Ramos à naviguer dans l’histoire de l’art et la culture contemporaine, en utilisant l’attrait de la nudité féminine pour explorer et satiriser les obsessions sociétales de la beauté, du désir et de la marchandisation. Ce faisant, l’œuvre de Ramos devient une concoction Pop Art par excellence, se délectant de son association ludique avec Duchamp tout en critiquant et en célébrant simultanément la culture visuelle de son époque.

MEL RAMOS

Sympathique dans sa représentation des fermiers et des travailleurs des champs et privilégiant les thèmes du dévouement et du travail acharné, Thomas Hart Benton a créé des centaines d'études décrivant la lutte pour l'existence qui constituait le quotidien brutal de tant d'Américains à l'époque. Hoeing Cotton a beaucoup de la pâleur sombre et morose qui évoque les difficultés de l'agriculture du Sud pendant la Grande Dépression. La mise en scène, comme si elle était suspendue dans l'attente d'une tempête imminente, utilise l'interaction dynamique entre le ciel et le paysage pour approfondir l'impact thématique de la vie rurale dans le Sud profond. Ces éléments mettent en évidence le lien entre les gens et leur environnement, ainsi que l'esprit de résilience qui perdure.

THOMAS HART BENTON (EN)

L'œuvre Untitled de Katharine Grosse, réalisée en 2016, nous permet d'apprécier davantage une artiste qui apporte au support traditionnel de la peinture sur toile la même énergie, la même audace et le même mépris des conventions que l'on retrouve dans ses installations architecturales monumentales. La couleur explose, soulevée à partir d'une surface complexe et richement stratifiée d'applications coulées de peinture qui coule, goutte à goutte ou éclabousse, de voiles transparents rayonnants et de bandes de couleur qui se chevauchent et qui sont vaporisées pour créer de douces transitions en dégradé. Le résultat est une impression fascinante de profondeur spatiale et de tridimensionnalité. Mais il s'agit également d'un tour de force qui révèle l'habileté de Grosse à mêler le chaos et le contrôle, la spontanéité et l'intention. Son éventail de techniques crée un dialogue fascinant entre l'accidentel et le délibéré, ce qui est la marque de son style unique.

KATHARINA GROSSE

A major figure in both the Abstract Expressionist and American Figurative Expressionist movements of the 1940s and 1950s, Elaine de Kooning's prolific output defied singular categorization. Her versatile styles explored the spectrum of realism to abstraction, resulting in a career characterized by intense expression and artistic boundary-pushing. A striking example of de Kooning's explosive creativity is Untitled (Totem Pole), an extremely rare sculptural painting by the artist that showcases her command of color. <br><br>She created this piece around 1960, the same period as her well-known bullfight paintings. She left New York in 1957 to begin teaching at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, and from there would visit Ciudad Juárez, where she observed the bullfights that inspired her work. An avid traveler, de Kooning drew inspiration from various sources, resulting in a diverse and experimental body of work.

ELAINE DE KOONING

Informée par sa foi catholique, l'évolution artistique de Rouault est unique parmi les modernistes. Captivé par les couleurs vibrantes et la façon dont la lumière traverse les vitraux médiévaux, il applique d'épaisses et riches couches de peinture et amplifie les formes brutes et audacieuses, inondées de bleus profonds dans des lignes noires épaisses. Rouault a souvent soutenu des thèmes religieux récurrents et forts, dédiés au pouvoir de la rédemption. Carlotta ne sert ni cette vocation supérieure, ni la souffrance marginalisée de sujets tels que les clowns, les prostituées et les crucifixions. Carlotta est plutôt l'occasion d'admirer les variations de couleurs plus subtiles de Rouault et l'interaction dynamique entre la qualité rugueuse et tactile de l'empâtement et l'effet plus doux et plus diffus des passages brouillés d'un modèle qui n'est pas encombré par les thèmes de la douleur humaine et du désespoir.

GEORGES ROUAULT

Expérimentale et très sophistiquée, la "technique du puzzle" innovante de Munch consistait à découper la planche de bois en plusieurs morceaux, à les encrer et à les imprimer individuellement avant de les réassembler pour créer l'image finale. Ce procédé permet d'obtenir une variété de couleurs, des impressions uniques au sein d'une même édition, ainsi qu'un large éventail d'émotions et d'humeurs. Richement orchestrées, les formes ondulantes de House on the Coast I sont construites à travers des couches de couleur et de texture présentant plusieurs plans, chacun contribuant à la profondeur et à la complexité spatiale de l'œuvre. La gravure et le gougeage des gravures sur bois, qui conviennent parfaitement pour exprimer la mentalité de travail souvent brutale d'Edvard Munch, ont repoussé les limites des méthodes traditionnelles et renforcé son engagement à explorer la profondeur émotionnelle et psychologique dans son art.

EDVARD MUNCH

Max Weber s’installe à Paris en 1905, alors que la ville est l’épicentre de l’innovation artistique. Ses premières œuvres démontrent l’influence contemporaine de la palette de couleurs audacieuses du fauvisme et de la représentation fragmentée de la réalité du cubisme. Cependant, Weber ne s’est pas contenté d’imiter ces styles ; Il les a intégrées et réinterprétées pour créer quelque chose qui lui appartient. L’importance de Weber ne réside pas seulement dans ses œuvres abstraites, mais aussi dans son rôle de vecteur d’idées modernistes. Weber a joué un rôle crucial dans le dialogue transatlantique qui a contribué à façonner le cours de l’art américain au XXe siècle. Ses représentations de figures féminines présentent une synthèse de l’abstrait et du figuratif, capturant l’essence de ses sujets tout en rompant avec les œuvres figuratives traditionnelles.

MAX WEBER

HANS HOFMANN - Sans titre - huile sur toile - 25 x 30 1/4 in.

HOFMANN HANS

ALFRED SISLEY - Vaches au paturage sur les bords de la Seine - pastel sur papier - 11 1/4 x 15 1/2 in.

ALFRED SISLEY

HERB ALPERT - Arrowhead - bronze - 201 x 48 x 48 po.

ALPERT HERB

Well known for his candor and pragmatic sensibility, Alexander Calder was as direct, ingenious, and straight to the point in life as he was in his art. “Personnages”, for example, is unabashedly dynamic, a work that recalls his early love of the action of the circus as well as his insights into human nature. The character of “Personnages” suggests a spontaneous drawing-in-space, recalling his radical wire sculptures of the 1920s.<br>© 2023 Calder Foundation, New York / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

ALEXANDRE CALDER

CAMILLE PISSARRO - Paysage avec batteuse a Montfoucault - pastel sur papier posé sur carton - 10 3/8 x 14 3/4 in.

PISSARRO CAMILLE

Genieve Figgis est une figure notable de la scène artistique irlandaise contemporaine, reconnue pour ses portraits de groupe intelligents et critiques qui se moquent souvent de conventions sociales anciennes. Elle a attiré l'attention de l'artiste américain Richard Prince sur Twitter, qui a acheté l'une de ses œuvres et l'a introduite dans les cercles influents de la communauté artistique new-yorkaise. Le travail de Figgis critique de manière ludique les habitudes de consommation de la classe moyenne aisée et les modes de vie luxueux, immortalisés par les artistes du passé, et ramène fermement ces sujets dans le présent avec un mélange de satire et de représentations brutes et authentiques de la vie. Pour Figgis, il s'agit de remonter le temps jusqu'à Daumier ou Hogarth, dont les œuvres portaient souvent un regard satirique sur la société contemporaine, en rejoignant des artistes engagés dans la satire sociale et connus pour leur sens aigu de l'observation.

GENIEVE FIGGIS

La série de sculptures Bali de Frank Stella se caractérise par des formes flottantes et fluides, s’étendant dans l’espace du spectateur et invitant à l’interaction entre l’objet et son environnement. Le « dadap », un type d’arbre associé à la croissance et à la signification rituelle dans la culture balinaise, reflète la nature organique et dynamique des sculptures de Stella. En passant de l’acier inoxydable et de l’aluminium au bambou, Stella a préservé la nature essentielle de l’esthétique balinaise qui exalte des formes organiques, fluides et dynamiques dans leur espace. Dadap présente une continuité dans l’exploration thématique de Stella où l’esprit de son travail transcende la matérialité. Le métal offre une texture, une réflectivité et une interaction différentes avec la lumière et l’espace, tout en adhérant aux principes du mouvement et de l’interactivité. Il s’agit d’un transfert créatif de forme et de concept à travers différents médiums, en conservant l’esprit de l’inspiration initiale tout en permettant aux propriétés du nouveau matériau d’exprimer ces idées dans un nouveau contexte.

FRANK STELLA (EN)

After disappointing sales at Weyhe Gallery in 1928, Calder turned from sculpted wire portraits and figures to the more conventional medium of wood. On the advice of sculptor Chaim Gross, he purchased small blocks of wood from Monteath, a Brooklyn supplier of tropical woods. He spent much of that summer on a Peekskill, New York farm carving. In each case, the woodblock suggested how he might preserve its overall shape and character as he subsumed those attributes in a single form.  There was a directness about working in wood that appealed to him. Carved from a single block of wood, Woman with Square Umbrella is not very different from the subjects of his wire sculptures except that he supplanted the ethereal nature of using wire with a more corporeal medium.<br>© 2023 Calder Foundation, New York / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

ALEXANDRE CALDER

JOAN MIRO - L'Oiseau - bronze et parpaing - 23 7/8 x 20 x 16 1/8 in.

JOAN MIRO (EN)

Parmi les nombreux totems spirituels d'Herb Albert, coulés en bronze et patinés d'un noir soyeux, rares sont ceux qui ont le caractère distinctement masculin de Warrior. Surmonté d'une couronne descendante dentelée qui pourrait aussi bien faire référence à la crête d'un oiseau de proie qu'à la coiffe d'un chef indien des Plaines, le titre de "guerrier" est une description appropriée qui évoque les attributs de la force, du courage et de l'esprit inébranlable, entre autres.  À l'instar de l'œuvre d'Henry Moore, ces associations dépendent, en partie, de l'espace négatif pour créer l'impression dynamique et forte que dégage cette formidable sculpture.

ALPERT HERB

Membre de la légendaire association artistique Gutai qui a prospéré entre 1954 et 1972, Sadamasa Motonaga a émergé lorsque l'existentialisme surréaliste post-atomique était à la pointe du développement artistique au Japon. Pourtant, il a choisi une voie différente. Il a tourné le dos à la destruction causée par la guerre et a créé une œuvre fraîche, jubilatoire et ludique. Untitled" de 1966 est dans son style classique, qui s'est développé en même temps que les peintures dites "Veil" de Morris Louis. Il pourrait suggérer la crête brillamment éclairée, l'œil et le plumage tacheté d'un gallinacé, mais toute association de ce genre est probablement arbitraire et non intentionnelle. Il s'agit plutôt d'une démonstration brillamment réussie de l'approche avant-gardiste de Motonaga sur le Tarashikomi japonais traditionnel - la technique qui consiste à incliner la toile à différents angles pour permettre aux mélanges de résine et d'émail de couler les uns sur les autres avant que la peinture ne soit complètement sèche.

SADAMASA MOTONAGA

© 2023 Calder Foundation, New York / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

ALEXANDRE CALDER

Andy Warhol est synonyme de l'art américain de la seconde moitié du XXe siècle. Il est connu pour ses portraits iconiques et ses produits de consommation, mêlant culture populaire et beaux-arts, redéfinissant ainsi ce que l'art pouvait être et la manière dont nous l'abordons. Si de nombreuses œuvres de Warhol ne représentent pas des personnes célèbres, ses représentations d'objets inanimés élèvent ses sujets à un niveau de célébrité. Warhol a représenté des chaussures pour la première fois au début de sa carrière, alors qu'il travaillait comme illustrateur de mode. Il est revenu à ce thème dans les années 1980, combinant sa fascination pour le consumérisme et le glamour. Dans son désir constant de fusionner la haute et la basse culture, Warhol a choisi de mettre en avant un objet aussi omniprésent que les chaussures. Le sujet peut dénoter la pauvreté ou la richesse, la fonction ou la mode. Warhol donne un aspect glamour à la pile de chaussures, en les recouvrant d'une patine de poussière de diamant brillante, brouillant encore plus le sens entre besoin utilitaire et pièce de style.

ANDY WARHOL (EN)

Deborah Butterfield occupe une place importante dans le panthéon des sculpteurs américains, réputée pour son esprit pionnier et sa maîtrise de divers médiums. Fabriqué en acier formé, « Beacon » témoigne de son audace et de son dévouement à repousser les limites artistiques. Butterfield a relevé les défis de ce médium exigeant, et c’est une fusion d’innovation et de tradition. Avec son esthétique moderne caractérisée par des lignes amples et élégantes, cette sculpture de cheval est une source d’enchantement, invitant le spectateur dans un royaume où l’art contemporain converge avec une beauté intemporelle. Beacon honore la grâce classique de la forme équine et réaffirme la position de Butterfield en tant que visionnaire dans le paysage de la sculpture moderne.

DEBORAH BUTTERFIELD (EN)

Lorsqu’un cheval se couche, c’est parce qu’il se sent en sécurité, ce qui, pour Deborah Butterfield, est une façon de dire qu’il est normal de se rendre vulnérable. « Echo », construit de manière à respecter ses compétences en matière de recherche de nourriture et sa capacité à souder le métal, n’adhère pas à une représentation traditionnelle d’un cheval, mais révèle plutôt quelque chose de sa nature essentielle. Construite à partir de tôles d’acier assemblées, certaines ondulées, d’autres pliées ou serties, c’est une pièce qui porte la marque du temps, vieillie jusqu’à une patine brun rouille, des imperfections célébrées plutôt que dissimulées. Le choix délibéré des matériaux et de leur traitement par Butterfield ajoute de la profondeur et du caractère, transformant Untitled, Echo en plus d’une simple représentation équine - il reflète la beauté sauvage et la résilience de l’animal qu’il représente.

DEBORAH BUTTERFIELD (EN)

FREDERICK CARL FRIESEKE - Colline à Giverny - huile sur toile - 25 1/4 x 31 1/4 in.

FREDERICK CARL FRIESEKE

Les premières œuvres en papier mâché de Manuel Neri ont ouvert la voie à la technique sculpturale, et son approche de la peinture de ses sculptures reflète son profond engagement dans le potentiel expressif de la couleur et de la forme. Le choix et la disposition des couleurs dans Hombre Colorado II créent une réponse particulièrement viscérale qui reflète sa compréhension nuancée de la dimension psychologique et émotionnelle de la couleur. Conçu et produit en 1958, Hombre Colorado II reflète une époque où Neri et sa femme Joan Brown étaient engagés dans un riche échange artistique et contribuaient de manière significative à l'évolution de leurs styles respectifs et du mouvement figuratif de la Bay Area, dans lequel ils jouaient un rôle essentiel.

NERI MANUEL

PAUL JENKINS - Phénomènes par retour - acrylique sur toile - 104 3/4 x 49 5/8 in.

PAUL JENKINS (EN)

"Wigwam rouge et jaune", une captivante peinture à la gouache d'Alexander Calder, est une exploration vibrante du design et de la couleur. Dominée par un treillis de lignes diagonales se croisant près de leur point culminant, la composition dégage un équilibre dynamique. Calder introduit un élément de fantaisie avec des losanges rouges et jaunes, qui confèrent à l'œuvre un caractère ludique et créent une atmosphère de fête. Les boules rouges au sommet des lignes de droite évoquent une impression de fantaisie, tandis que les petites sphères grises au sommet des lignes de gauche offrent un contraste et un équilibre. La fusion magistrale de la simplicité et des éléments de conception essentiels de Calder fait de Wigwam rouge et jaune un délice visuel.

ALEXANDRE CALDER

© 2023 Calder Foundation, New York / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

ALEXANDRE CALDER

Manuel Neri était une figure centrale du Bay Area Figurative Movement dans les années 1960. Au lieu de formes abstraites, le groupe mettait l'accent sur l'émotion à travers la puissance de la forme humaine. La présente œuvre, "Sans titre" (1982), explore la forme féminine à l'échelle réelle.  Tout au long de ses 60 ans de carrière, Neri a préféré travailler avec un seul modèle, Maria Julia Klimenko. L'absence de visage dans de nombreuses sculptures ajoute un élément de mystère et d'ambiguïté. Dans "Sans titre", la composition est axée sur la structure et la forme de la figure.  Manuel Neri est représenté dans de nombreuses collections de musées à travers le monde, notamment à la Addison Gallery/Phillips Academy, à la Anderson Collection de l'université de Stanford, à l'Art Institute of Chicago, au Cantor Arts Center de l'université de Stanford, au Cincinnati Art Museum, au Crocker Art Museum de Sacramento, en Californie, au Denver Art Museum, au El Paso Museum of Art, au Texas, aux Fine Arts Museums de San Francisco, aux Harvard University Art Museums, au Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden de Washington, D. C., au Honolulu Museum of Art, à l'Université de Californie du Sud, à l'Université de Californie du Sud et à l'Université de Californie du Sud.C. ; Honolulu Museum of Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York et la National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

NERI MANUEL

Aucun artiste n'a comblé le fossé entre le modernisme européen et l'expressionnisme abstrait américain comme l'a fait Hans Hofmann. La raison en est simple : il a été formé dans les académies parisiennes avant la Première Guerre mondiale et s'est lié d'amitié avec Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Robert et Sonia Delaunay, ce qui lui a donné un niveau de familiarité avec le modernisme européen qu'aucun autre expressionniste abstrait n'a possédé. Untitled (View of Provincetown Harbor) combine des éléments de cette première époque, la couleur débridée des Fauves dans des passages largement brossés avec la promesse de la peinture automatiste de l'école de New York à venir. Très gestuelle, elle mêle les motifs et la vitesse du pinceau de Raoul Dufy à une projection plus masculine et plus audacieuse, suggérant les racines de l'Action Painting.

HOFMANN HANS

LOUIS VALTAT - Vase de coquelicots - huile sur toile - 23 1/2 x 19 in.

LOUIS VALTAT

RODOLFO MORALES - Sans titre - huile sur toile - 37 1/4 x 39 1/4 in.

RODOLFO MORALES

Deborah Butterfield est une sculptrice américaine, surtout connue pour ses sculptures de chevaux faites d'objets en bois, en métal et autres objets trouvés. La pièce de 1981, Untitled (Cheval), est composée de bâtons et de papier sur armature métallique. L'échelle impressionnante de cette pièce crée un effet remarquable en personne, présentant un exemple frappant du célèbre sujet de Butterfield. À l'origine, Butterfield a créé les chevaux à partir du bois et d'autres matériaux trouvés sur sa propriété à Bozeman, au Montana, et a vu les chevaux comme un autoportrait métaphorique, exploitant la résonance émotionnelle de ces formes.

DEBORAH BUTTERFIELD (EN)

HERB ALPERT - Inspiré - bronze - 100 x 20 x 12 in.

ALPERT HERB

LE PHO - Fleurs - huile sur toile - 28 3/4 x 21 1/4 in.

LE PHO

À la fin des années 1990, Manuel Neri a commencé à transformer de nombreuses sculptures en plâtre en bronze, revenant souvent à des œuvres antérieures pour produire de nouvelles interprétations imaginées de chaque pièce. Ces séries, presque indiscernables en termes de forme et de détails de surface, explorent l'impact de différentes combinaisons de couleurs et de marquages qui impliquent diverses actions, notamment l'incision, le brossage, le grattage ou la superposition de matériaux. En expérimentant différentes techniques de marquage, Neri a pu explorer l'interaction entre la forme, la couleur, la texture et la lumière. Dans le contexte de la Figure debout n° 3, Neri a limité sa palette à une palette de couleurs analogues, en diluant la peinture pour créer des gradations subtiles qui mettent en valeur l'extérieur lisse et raffiné de la sculpture.

NERI MANUEL

Connu pour sa fascination pour la gloire, la célébrité et les icônes culturelles, Andy Warhol a parfois dépassé le cadre de ses contemporains pour s'intéresser à des personnages historiques. Les théories de Goethe sur la couleur mettent l'accent sur la manière dont les couleurs sont perçues et sur leur impact psychologique, ce qui contraste avec la compréhension de la couleur en tant que phénomène scientifique, basée sur la physique newtonienne. Bien qu'il n'y ait pas de lien direct entre la théorie des couleurs de Goethe et le fait que Warhol l'ait choisi comme sujet, cela met en évidence la façon dont nous considérons l'art de Warhol comme s'engageant dans des traditions historiques pour symboliser un lien entre leurs domaines et leurs époques respectives. En ce sens, l'œuvre constitue un hommage et une collaboration intertemporelle, reliant le langage visuel de Warhol à la conscience qu'avait Goethe de la couleur en tant qu'élément puissant et stimulant de la perception.

ANDY WARHOL (EN)

ANDY WARHOL - Goethe - sérigraphie en couleurs - 38 x 38 in.

ANDY WARHOL (EN)

MARC QUINN - Lovebomb - photo laminée sur aluminium - 108 1/4 x 71 3/4 x 37 3/4 in.

MARC QUINN

Irving Norman was born in 1906 in Vilna, then part of the Russian Empire, now Lithuania. Norman's immigration to New York City in 1923 was short-lived, as he would return to Europe to fight as part of the Abraham Lincoln battalion against the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco. After the War, Norman would eventually settle in Half Moon Bay, California, where he embarked on a prolific studio practice.  <br><br>Norman's work portrays the horrors of war and his firsthand knowledge of totalitarian dictatorships. Norman's work has been described as "Social Surrealism," and his grand scenes are immediate and arresting. The large-scale works of Norman truly capture the power of his lived experiences; they are as much a visual record as they are a warning for the future, intended to inspire change.

IRVING NORMAN (EN)

ANDY WARHOL - Voiture Ford - graphite sur papier - 11 1/2 x 15 3/4 in.

ANDY WARHOL (EN)

ARMAND GUILLAUMIN - Roquebrune, Le Matin - huile sur toile - 25 x 31 1/4 in.

ARMAND GUILLAUMIN

Parmi le groupe d'artistes japonais Gutai qui s'est formé dans les années 1950, aucun n'a travaillé aussi rapidement et sans crainte que Kazuo Shiraga. Ses peintures se caractérisent par des coups de pinceau dynamiques et gestuels, souvent réalisés de manière non conventionnelle. Shiraga est célèbre pour avoir utilisé son corps comme outil de peinture, appliquant souvent la peinture sur la toile ou le papier avec ses pieds, tout en étant suspendu à une corde. Les textures sont généralement épaisses, mais toujours très tactiles, avec des couches de peinture qui ajoutent de la profondeur et de la physicalité à l'œuvre. D'autre part, Taki s'appuie sur des traînées brutes de couleurs bigarrées, évoquant une énergie débridée et un sentiment de liberté et de rébellion pour lequel il est connu, défiant les conventions artistiques traditionnelles et repoussant les limites de l'expression créative.

KAZUO SHIRAGA

Op Art evolved as an alternative trend in painting to the abstract expressionist movement of the 1950s. The genesis of the movement was in the 1960s, when artists such as Victor Vasarely, Bridget Riley, and Richard Anuszkiewicz embraced a more structured and geometric approach to their painting, often using visual tricks to create a sense of movement.  While the artistic and spiritual predecessors to OP Art, such as Josef Albers (!888-1976), utilized a softer and more subdued approach, the Op Artists were using bold, large-scale works with variable dimensions to create their visual statement.  <br><br>A student of Albers, Richard Anuszkiewicz, used enamel and acrylic paint on wood in such a way to create his uncompromising and exact compositions.  A great sense of action can be felt in the present work, "Translumina". The sister piece to "Translumina," "Translumina II" (1986), is in the permanent collection of the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo.

RICHARD ANUSZKIEWICZ

La série des boîtes de soupe Campbell d'Andy Warhol marque un tournant dans sa carrière et dans le mouvement du Pop Art. Cette série, composée de 32 toiles représentant chacune une saveur différente, a révolutionné le monde de l'art en élevant des produits de consommation courante au rang d'œuvres d'art. La sérigraphie Pepper Pot de 1968 utilise son style caractéristique de couleurs vives et plates et d'images répétées, caractéristiques de la production de masse et de la culture de consommation. La sérigraphie, une technique commerciale, correspond à l'intérêt de Warhol de brouiller les lignes entre le grand art et l'art commercial, en remettant en question les valeurs et les perceptions artistiques.

ANDY WARHOL (EN)

"Bouquets de Fleurs" (1901) is a glowing Post-Impressionist still life. As the revolutionary wave of Impressionism receded from its apex, artists such as Henri Manguin, Henri Matisse, Kees van Dongen, Louis Valtat, and others emerged as part of the new avant-garde in Europe. These “Fauves,” or roughly translated “wild beasts,” would attack their canvases with a bold and vibrant new palette. This completely new way of painting was not initially celebrated by critics, or the artistic elite, but is today recognized among the most innovative and original artistic movements of the 20th Century.    <br><br>The present work, painted just before the revolution of Fauvism took hold, demonstrates a critical transitionary period in Modern Art. The subject is depicted with a masterful compositional sense and attention to spatial relationships. Manguin’s competency in composition would allow him to experiment freely with color during the first decade of the 20th Century. The slightly later but comparable Manguin still life “Flowers” (1915) is in the permanent collection of the Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

HENRI MANGUIN

Wayne Thiebaud est largement admiré en tant que peintre. Pourtant, son talent de dessinateur est tout aussi convaincant et particulièrement évident dans la lithographie, un médium autographique célèbre pour documenter chaque geste d’un artiste. Comme Paint Cans le démontre pleinement, la lithographie offre également la liberté de superposer les textures et les couleurs pour obtenir une représentation astucieuse des intentions articulées d’un artiste. Dans la composition, « Paint Cans » montre le sens aigu de l’ordre de Thiebaud, qui met l’accent sur les points focaux et les lignes directionnelles qui démontrent les façons uniques dont il peut mettre en valeur un groupe d’objets du quotidien. C’est encore une autre œuvre qui étonne le spectateur par sa technique et ses compétences très détaillées.

WAYNE THIEBAUD

Lorsque Dorothy Hood est retournée à Houston en 1962, à sa grande joie, la NASA a fait une annonce capitale : le nouveau Spacecraft Center serait à Houston. L’idée de voyager dans l’espace a résonné avec son intérêt de longue date pour la cosmologie, et l’aspiration héroïque à réaliser un atterrissage sur la lune a ouvert quelque chose chez l’artiste. Cette nouvelle frontière a influencé son travail et l’a encouragée à travailler plus grand. Elle a admis : « La découverte de ce que je pouvais faire avec (de grandes toiles) est la chose la plus importante qui me soit jamais arrivée dans ma vie de peintre. » Bien que Space Signals soit un tour de force de peinture de champ de couleur, son langage visuel provient d’autres sources : des images périodiques de sondes spatiales, d’objets astronomiques et de ses nombreuses conversations avec des scientifiques et des astronautes qui ont stimulé son imagination. Elle a créé ces zones d’une beauté ravissante, finement peintes, de teintes bleu phtalo vaporeuses sur les ailes de cette inspiration.

DOROTHY HOOD

Dès le début de sa maturation, Hood s'est imposée comme une artiste aux images métaphysiques qui s'est engagée dans diverses cosmologies à son retour à Houston en 1962. Blue Waters fait partie de ces œuvres qui reflètent sa quête persistante de nourriture spirituelle. Une bande de bleu saturé et opaque s'avance dans une sphère d'azur limpide, rappelant un globe terrestre et aquatique. Cette intrusion audacieuse mais harmonieuse ressemble à un bras éthéré transformant un état fluide en un vert phtalo-phosphorescent envoûtant, dont l'opulence et la brillance en continu suggèrent une intervention divine évoquant la métaphore de "la main de Dieu", animant l'essence de la vie. L'utilisation magistrale de la couleur et de la forme par Hood invite souvent à l'interprétation d'une étreinte cosmique ou spirituelle au sein du monde naturel. Cependant, ses lavis limpides de couleurs coulées ne démontrent pas le hasard ou l'incertitude, mais sa maîtrise et son contrôle remarquables qui ajoutent un autre élément d'émerveillement à Blue Waters.

DOROTHY HOOD

L’approche de Dorothy Hood aborde souvent la nature essentielle de la beauté. Avec Bien que l’hommage à Arshile Gorki, la beauté sert de canal qui intensifie notre participation consciente, introduisant des idées complexes à travers des présentations visuellement frappantes, dont rien ne serait possible si Hood n’était pas un technicien aussi raffiné. Les transitions « blush and bloom » dans les deux territoires rouges sont d’une beauté époustouflante. Pourtant, Hood est aussi un maître des effets illusionnistes qui jouent avec notre perception. En introduisant un changement de couleur dans le canal, passant du mauve clair de lune avec des nuances bleutées à un rose poudré opaque plus clair, l’effet repose sur la façon dont la perception de la couleur par le spectateur perçoit une division. Le premier effet, ci-dessus, contient l’illusion d’un gouffre, le second d’une barrière visuelle séparant les deux blocs de couleur que le spectateur peut facilement reconnaître. Cet effet opposé est encore accentué par la mise en place de formes glacées et cristallisées sur la dalle rouge près du bas du plan de l’image et, par contraste, par des taches cachées sous la dalle gauche pour accentuer l’effet d’un canal.

DOROTHY HOOD

Hood a souvent reconnu qu’Arshile Gorki, Edvard Munch, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso et Max Ernst ont eu un impact sur sa capacité à transmettre des concepts et des idées dans une abstraction non figurative. Mais ce sont ses études intensives du mythe, de la science, de la nature, de la spiritualité et de ses compétences prodigieuses qui nous amènent aux limites de nos perceptions et de nos expériences. Untitled ne partage pas la qualité délicate et éthérée des fleurs botaniques de Georgia O’Keefe et reconnaît plutôt l’intensité transformatrice sous-jacente à la création des choses terrestres. Pour Hood, la transformation de la graine au bourgeon, de la fleur à la graine est un cycle d’achèvement et un état perpétuel de métamorphose façonné par le passage du temps et l’interaction des royaumes physique et spirituel. C’est l’un de ses thèmes les plus puissants sur lequel elle revient souvent.

DOROTHY HOOD

Au cœur de la vie et de l’art de Dorothy Hood se trouve son séjour au Mexique entre 1941 et 1962, alors qu’elle était au centre des carrefours culturels, politiques et sociaux. Parmi ses amis figuraient les surréalistes Remedios Varo et Leonora Carrington et les peintres indigènes Rufino Tamayo et José Clemente Orozco, avec qui elle a développé une profonde amitié. Lorsqu’elle est retournée à Houston pour peindre les toiles épiques pour lesquelles elle sera toujours la plus connue, des portails vers des royaumes fantastiques et insaisissables se sont ouverts à elle. Les formes évocatrices de Black Vessel anticipent la superposition, le découpage et le réarrangement de la matière pour produire les collages visuellement stimulants qui l’ont souvent occupée dans les années 1980. Intentionnel ou non, l’arrangement et les motifs réciproques suggèrent une silhouette de pagode birmane se détachant sur le ciel nocturne. Une pagode est principalement utilisée comme monument pour abriter des reliques, et la structure à plusieurs niveaux symbolise les enseignements bouddhistes.

DOROTHY HOOD

Pour Hood, la mer et l’étendue infinie du cosmos sont des reflets l’un de l’autre. Ils incarnent la force formidable qui séduit l’esprit et fait étalage de nos illusions d’être en contrôle. Le vide est une force primordiale illimitée qui transcende notre compréhension de sa vraie nature. Pour Hood, le défi d’encadrer l’infini dans les limites finies d’une toile est devenu l’œuvre de sa vie. Dans The Face in the Sea, les zones noires austères créent l’impression d’un espace négatif, un peu comme l’immensité de l’espace lui-même, où les éclats rouges improvisés sont comme des phénomènes célestes ; nébuleuses, comètes et galaxies et émergent dans ce vide. Les arêtes vives du noir agissent comme des horizons d’événements qui obscurcissent et pourtant définissent, faisant allusion à des dimensions invisibles au-delà, un vide reflétant l’immensité désorientante de l’espace. L’effet est cosmologique et psychologique, une œuvre qui capture la dualité palpitante de l’espace, un potentiel infini rencontré avec un mystère inconnaissable.

DOROTHY HOOD

ELAINE DE KOONING - Le Matador - gouache sur papier - 7 3/4 x 9 1/2 in.

ELAINE DE KOONING

SETH KAUFMAN - Lignum Spire - bronze à patine verte - 103 1/2 x 22 x 17 in.

SETH KAUFMAN

Karl Benjamin et ses pairs Lorser Feitelson, Frederick Hammersley et John McLaughlin occupent une place à part dans l'histoire de l'art abstrait américain. Connus pour leurs formes géométriques précises et leurs bords nets soulignant la planéité, ils sont les peintres californiens de la "Hard Edge" qui ont émergé à la fin des années 1950. Contrairement à Ellsworth Kelly, par exemple, leurs œuvres reflètent une luminosité, une clarté et une palette qui suggèrent l'environnement naturel et bâti de la Californie plutôt que les influences plus urbaines et industrielles ressenties sur la côte est. En outre, comparé à la scène artistique compétitive de la côte Est, le groupe californien était une communauté d'artistes relativement petite et soudée, avec un sens de la collaboration et de l'exploration partagée qui a contribué à un mouvement cohésif avec une identité distincte.

KARL BENJAMIN (EN)

MARY ABBOTT - Sans titre - huile et bâton d'huile sur papier monté sur toile - 23 x 29 in.

MARY ABBOTT (EN)

Alors que Hood entrait dans les dernières années de son art et de sa vie, elle est restée soutenue par des explorations de l’espace extérieur et intérieur, et son souvenir du Mexique a continué d’être une source. En conséquence, les peintures des années 90 dégagent une énergie juvénile qui dément l’âge de l’artiste. Se confronter à ces œuvres, c’est se sentir au premier éclat de lumière primitif ou à la fin du monde. Gravity’s Rainbow II résume l’évolution du contexte spatial distinct et de l’orientation psychologique de Hood, évoquant un champ d’énergie expansif et des bandes de couleurs rayonnantes et explosives. Le titre fait référence au roman de Thomas Pynchon qui se déroule principalement en Europe à la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Il comprend les fils d’un récit concernant le développement et le déploiement de la fusée V-2. Hood a probablement été attiré par la citation du scientifique Wernher von Braun : « La nature ne connaît pas l’extinction ; Tout ce qu’il sait, c’est la transformation. Tout ce que la science m’a enseigné et continue de m’enseigner renforce ma croyance en la continuité de notre existence spirituelle après la mort.

DOROTHY HOOD

Au cours des années 1980 et 1990, la dévotion de Hood à l’idée de vide n’a pas trouvé grâce auprès d’une génération gouvernée par le néo-pop, le postmodernisme ou le débat sur la validité de l’art d’appropriation. Walter Darby Bannard, un peintre établi de Color Field, a reconnu l’énorme talent de Dorothy Hood et lui a conseillé d’abandonner son intérêt ésotérique pour quelque chose sans limites et au-delà de la compréhension. Hood, comme nous le savons, a tenu bon. Comme elle l’a déclaré, « le noir peut être peint pour exprimer une grande lumière, car dans le vide de l’obscurité surgit tout commencement. Les formes sont dans la pesanteur, ou elles sont suspendues sans le temps, ou la précipitation du mouvement. La virtuosité de Hood dans le traitement du noir est pleinement exposée avec Untitled (Black Beauty), un chef-d’œuvre plus puissant lorsqu’il est vu à travers le prisme de sa quête incessante pour découvrir l’unité cosmique.

DOROTHY HOOD

Bien qu'il ne soit pas considéré comme un peintre d'action, Chiyu Uemae est connu pour plusieurs approches qui se concentrent sur la forme, la texture et le jeu des couleurs. Comme dans le présent exemple, Sans titre, il applique souvent le pigment à l'aide d'un couteau à palette, créant ainsi des couches texturées qui permettent à des morceaux de couleur de briller comme des joyaux enfouis juste sous la terre. Avant de rejoindre le groupe Gutai, Uemae a étudié le Nan Ga, l'école méridionale de peinture chinoise, et il reconnaît que son expérience immersive dans le style de teinture de Kyoto et sa discipline de couture ont influencé son style mature. Le travail d'Uemae explore la matérialité de la peinture et les possibilités de la toile, reflétant un engagement profond avec l'acte de peindre lui-même.

CHIYU UEMAE

ANDY WARHOL - The Shadow (from Myths) - sérigraphie couleur avec poussière de diamant sur papier - 37 1/2 x 37 1/2 in.

ANDY WARHOL (EN)

ANDY WARHOL - Blackglama (Judy Garland) - sérigraphie - 38 x 38 in.

ANDY WARHOL (EN)

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ART POUR LES CARACTÉRISTIQUES

Le 15 mai 1886, le manifeste visuel d'un nouveau mouvement artistique a vu le jour lorsque Georges Seurat a dévoilé son œuvre phare, Un dimanche après-midi sur l'île de la Grande Jatte, à l'occasion de la huitième exposition impressionniste. Seurat peut se targuer d'être le premier "impressionniste scientifique", travaillant d'une manière qui sera connue sous le nom de pointillisme ou de divisionnisme. C'est cependant son ami et confident, Paul Signac, âgé de 24 ans, et leur dialogue constant qui ont conduit à une collaboration dans la compréhension de la physique de la lumière et de la couleur, et au style qui en a résulté. Signac était un peintre impressionniste sans formation, mais extrêmement talentueux, dont le tempérament était parfaitement adapté à la rigueur et à la discipline requises pour réaliser le travail laborieux et minutieux du pinceau et de la couleur. Signac assimile rapidement la technique. Il est également le témoin des deux années de travail ardu de Seurat, qui construit des myriades de couches de points de couleur non mélangés sur La Grande Jatte, une toile aux dimensions colossales. Ensemble, Signac, l'extraverti effronté, et Seurat, l'introverti secret, étaient sur le point de renverser le cours de l'impressionnisme et de changer le cours de l'art moderne.

PAUL SIGNAC

Led by a triumvirate of painters of the American Scene, Thomas Hart Benton, John Steuart Curry, and Grant Wood took on the task of exploring, defining, and celebrating the Midwest as a credible entity within the geographical, political, and mythological landscape of the United States. Their populist works were figurative and narrative-driven, and they gained widespread popularity among a Depression-weary American public. The landscapes Grant Wood painted, and the lithographs marketed by Associated American Artists were comforting reminders of traditional Midwestern values and the simplicity of country life. Yet, Wood's most iconic works, including American Gothic, were to be viewed through the lens of elusive narratives and witty ironies that reflect an artist who delighted in sharing his charming and humorous perspective on farm life. <br><br>In 1930, Wood achieved national fame and recognition with American Gothic, a fictionalized depiction of his sister, Nan, and his family dentist. Frequently regarded as the most famous American painting of the twentieth century, to fully grasp American Gothic's essential nature, one must recognize Wood's profound connection to his Iowan roots, a bond that borders on a singular fixation and the often-brutal confrontation between the moral and cultural rigidity of Midwest isolationism and the standards that prevailed elsewhere in America. This war of values and morality became dominant throughout Wood's oeuvre. Their fascination with American Gothic may have mystified the public, but the story, told in the attitude of a farmer and his wife, is as lean and brittle as the pitchfork he carries. Their attitude, as defiant as it is confrontational, is an unflinching dare to uppity gallery-goers to judge their immaculate well-scrubbed farm. American Gothic became an overnight sensation, an ambiguous national icon often interpreted as a self-effacing parody of midwestern life. Yet it also served as an unflinching mirror to urban elite attitudes and their often-derisive view of heartland values and way of life. In Grant Wood's hands, the people of the Midwest have stiffened and soured, their rectitude implacable.<br> <br>Portrait of Nan is Grant Wood's most intimate work. He may have been motivated to paint it to make amends for the significant scrutiny and harsh treatment his sister received as American Gothic's sternly posed female. Grant poured his heart into it as a sign of sibling love. Intent upon painting her as straightforward and simply as possible so as not to invite unintended interpretations, Wood's deep attachment to the portrait was significant enough for him to think of it as having irreplaceable value. When he moved from Cedar Rapids to Iowa City in 1935, he designed his entire living room around the work. It occupied the place of honor above the fireplace and was the only painting he refused to sell. <br> <br>The lithograph July Fifteenth, issued in 1938, proves his mystical vision of the Iowan heartland is anything but a pitchfork approach. Drawings assumed central importance in Wood's output, and this work is executed in meticulous detail, proving his drawings were at least as complex, if not more so, than his paintings. The surface of the present work takes on an elaborate, decorative rhythm, echoed throughout the land that is soft, verdant, and fertile. Structurally, it alludes in equal measure to the geometry of modern art and the decorative patterning of folk-art traditions. This is a magical place, a fulsome display of an idealized version of an eternal, lovely, and benign heartland. <br><br>The Young Artist, an en plein air sketch, may have been produced during, or slightly after, what Wood called his "palette-knife stage" that consumed him in 1925. Having not yet traveled to Munich where, in 1928, he worked on a stain-glass window commission and came under the influence of the Northern Renaissance painters that sparked his interest in the compositional severity and detailed technique associated with his mature works, here, he worked quickly, and decisively. The view is from a hilltop at Kenwood Park that overlooks the Cedar River Valley near Cedar Rapids, where he built a house for his sister, Nan.

GRANT WOOD

Cottonwood Tree (Near Abiquiu), New Mexico (1943) by celebrated American artist Georgia O’Keeffe is exemplary of the airier, more naturalistic style that the desert inspired in her. O’Keeffe had great affinity for the distinctive beauty of the Southwest, and made her home there among the spindly trees, dramatic vistas, and bleached animal skulls that she so frequently painted. O’Keeffe took up residence at Ghost Ranch, a dude ranch twelve miles outside of the village of Abiquiú in northern New Mexico and painted this cottonwood tree around there. The softer style befitting this subject is a departure from her bold architectural landscapes and jewel-toned flowers.<br><br>The cottonwood tree is abstracted into soft patches of verdant greens through which more delineated branches are seen, spiraling in space against pockets of blue sky. The modeling of the trunk and delicate energy in the leaves carry forward past experimentations with the regional trees of the Northeast that had captivated O’Keeffe years earlier: maples, chestnuts, cedars, and poplars, among others. Two dramatic canvases from 1924, Autumn Trees, The Maple and The Chestnut Grey, are early instances of lyrical and resolute centrality, respectively. As seen in these early tree paintings, O’Keeffe exaggerated the sensibility of her subject with color and form.<br><br>In her 1974 book, O’Keeffe explained: “The meaning of a word— to me— is not as exact as the meaning of a color. Color and shapes make a more definite statement than words.” Her exacting, expressive color intrigued. The Precisionist painter Charles Demuth described how, in O’Keeffe’s work, “each color almost regains the fun it must have felt within itself on forming the first rainbow” (As quoted in C. Eldridge, Georgia O’Keeffe, New York, 1991, p. 33). As well, congruities between forms knit together her oeuvre. Subjects like hills and petals undulate alike, while antlers, trees, and tributaries correspond in their branching morphology.<br><br>The sinewy contours and gradated hues characteristic of O’Keeffe find an incredible range across decades of her tree paintings. In New Mexico, O’Keeffe returned to the cottonwood motif many times, and the seasonality of this desert tree inspired many forms. The vernal thrill of new growth was channeled into spiraling compositions like Spring Tree No.1 (1945). Then, cottonwood trees turned a vivid autumnal yellow provided a breathtaking compliment to the blue backdrop of Mount Pedernal. The ossified curves of Dead Cottonweed Tree (1943) contain dramatic pools of light and dark, providing a foil to the warm, breathing quality of this painting, Cottonwood Tree (Near Abiquiu). The aural quality of this feathered cottonwood compels a feeling guided by O’Keeffe’s use of form of color.

GÉORGIE O'KEEFFE

<br>In Diego Rivera’s portrait of Enriqueta Dávila, the artist asserts a Mexicanidad, a quality of Mexican-ness, in the work along with his strong feelings towards the sitter. Moreover, this painting is unique amongst his portraiture in its use of symbolism, giving us a strong if opaque picture of the relationship between artist and sitter.<br><br>Enriqueta, a descendent of the prominent Goldbaum family, was married to the theater entrepreneur, José María Dávila. The two were close friends with Rivera, and the artist initially requested to paint Enriqueta’s portrait. Enriqueta found the request unconventional and relented on the condition that Rivera paints her daughter, Enriqueta “Quetita”. Rivera captures the spirit of the mother through the use of duality in different sections of the painting, from the floorboards to her hands, and even the flowers. Why the split in the horizon of the floorboard? Why the prominent cross while Enriqueta’s family is Jewish? Even her pose is interesting, showcasing a woman in control of her own power, highlighted by her hand on her hip which Rivera referred to as a claw, further complicating our understanding of her stature.<br><br>This use of flowers, along with her “rebozo” or shawl, asserts a Mexican identity. Rivera was adept at including and centering flowers in his works which became a kind of signature device. The flowers show bromeliads and roselles; the former is epiphytic and the latter known as flor de jamaica and often used in hibiscus tea and aguas frescas. There is a tension then between these two flowers, emphasizing the complicated relationship between Enriqueta and Rivera. On the one hand, Rivera demonstrates both his and the sitter’s Mexican identity despite the foreign root of Enriqueta’s family but there may be more pointed meaning revealing Rivera’s feelings to the subject. The flowers, as they often do in still life paintings, may also refer to the fleeting nature of life and beauty. The portrait for her daughter shares some similarities from the use of shawl and flowers, but through simple changes in gestures and type and placement of flowers, Rivera illuminates a stronger personality in Enriqueta and a more dynamic relationship as filtered through his lens.<br><br>A closer examination of even her clothing reveals profound meaning. Instead of a dress more in line for a socialite, Rivera has Enriqueta in a regional dress from Jalisco, emphasizing both of their Mexican identities. On the other hand, her coral jewelry, repeated in the color of her shoes, hints at multiple meanings from foreignness and exoticism to protection and vitality. From Ancient Egypt to Classical Rome to today, coral has been used for jewelry and to have been believed to have properties both real and symbolic. Coral jewelry is seen in Renaissance paintings indicating the vitality and purity of woman or as a protective amulet for infants. It is also used as a reminder, when paired with the infant Jesus, of his future sacrifice. Diego’s use of coral recalls these Renaissance portraits, supported by the plain background of the painting and the ribbon indicating the maker and date similar to Old Master works.<br><br>When combined in the portrait of Enriqueta, we get a layered and tense building of symbolism. Rivera both emphasizes her Mexican identity but also her foreign roots. He symbolizes her beauty and vitality but look closely at half of her face and it is as if Rivera has painted his own features onto hers. The richness of symbolism hints at the complex relationship between artist and sitter.

RIVERA DIEGO

WILLEM DE KOONING - Femme dans une barque - huile sur papier couché sur masonite - 47 1/2 x 36 1/4 in.

WILLEM DE KOONING

Selon le catalogue raisonné compilé par le Brandywine River Museum of Art, le dessin préliminaire pour Puritan Cod Fishers a été achevé par N. C Wyeth avant sa mort en octobre 1945. L'entrée présente une image de l'esquisse ainsi que les inscriptions de l'artiste et son titre, Puritan Cod Fishers, qualifié par le catalogue d'"alternate" (alternatif). Quoi qu'il en soit, cette grande toile est une œuvre unique dont Andrew Wyeth a rappelé plus tard qu'elle avait été peinte uniquement de sa main, une collaboration délimitée de la conception et de la composition du père, concrétisée par l'exécution remarquable du fils. Pour Andrew, cela a dû être une expérience profondément ressentie et émouvante. Compte tenu de l'attention portée par son père aux détails et à l'authenticité, les lignes de la petite embarcation à voile représentent une échalote, utilisée au XVIe siècle. D'un autre côté, Andrew a probablement approfondi les teintes de la mer agitée plus que ne l'aurait fait son père, un choix qui accentue de manière appropriée la nature périlleuse de la tâche.

Andrew Wyeth & N. C. Wyeth

Alexander Calder was a key figure in the development of abstract sculpture and is renowned for his groundbreaking work in kinetic art; he is one of the most influential artists of the Twentieth Century. "Prelude to Man-Eater" is a delicately balanced standing sculpture that responds to air currents, creating a constantly changing and dynamic visual experience.<br><br>Calder's Standing Mobiles were a result of his continuous experimentation with materials, form, and balance. This Standing Mobile is a historically significant prelude to a larger work commissioned in 1945 by Alfred Barr, the first director of the Museum of Modern Art in New York. "Prelude to Maneater" is designed to be viewed from multiple angles, encouraging viewers to walk around and interact with it.<br><br>The present work is a formal study for Man-Eater With Pennant (1945), part of the permanent collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The work is also represented in "Sketches for Mobiles: Prelude to Man-Eater; Starfish; Octopus", which is in the permanent collection of the Harvard Fogg Museum.<br><br>Calder's mobiles and stabiles can be found in esteemed private collections and the collections of major museums worldwide, including the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, the Art Institute of Chicago, and the Tate Gallery in London among others.

ALEXANDRE CALDER

Between Île-de-France and Burgundy and on the edge of the Fontainebleau Forest lies the medieval village of Moret-sur-Loing, established in the 12th century. When Alfred Sisley described its character to Monet in a letter dated 31 August 1881 as “a chocolate-box landscape…” he meant it as a memento of enticement; that its keep, the ramparts, the church, the fortified gates, and the ornate facades nestled along the river were, for a painter, a setting of unmatched charm. An ancient church, always the most striking townscape feature along the Seine Valley, would be a presence in Sisley’s townscape views as it was for Corot, and for Monet at Vétheuil. But unlike Monet whose thirty views of Rouen Cathedral were executed so he could trace the play of light and shadow across the cathedral façade and capture the ephemeral nature of moment-to-moment changes of light and atmosphere, Sisley set out to affirm the permanent nature of the church of Notre-Dame at Moret-sur-Loing.  Monet’s sole concern was air and light, and Sisley’s appears to be an homage keepsake. The painting exudes respect for the original architects and builders of a structure so impregnable and resolute, it stood then as it did in those medieval times, and which for us, stands today, as it will, for time immemorial.<br><br>Nevertheless, Sisley strived to show the changing appearance of the motif through a series of atmospheric changes. He gave the works titles such as “In Sunshine”, “Under Frost”, and “In Rain” and exhibited them as a group at the Salon du Champ-de-Mars in 1894, factors that suggest he thought of them as serial interpretations. Nevertheless, unlike Monet’s work, l’église de Moret, le Soir reveals that Sisley chose to display the motif within a spatial context that accentuates its compositional attributes — the plunging perspective of the narrow street at left, the strong diagonal recession of the building lines as a counterbalance to the right, and the imposing weight of the stony building above the line of sight.

ALFRED SISLEY

N.C. Wyeth’s extraordinary skills as an illustrator were borne of impeccable draftsmanship and as a painter, his warmly rich, harmonious sense of color, and ability to capture the quality of light itself. But it is his unmatched artistry in vivifying story and character with a powerful sense of mood that we admire most of all — the ability to transport himself to the world and time of his creation and to convey it with a beguiling sense of conviction. That ability is as apparent in the compositional complexities of Treasure Island’s “One More Step, Mr. Hands!” as it is here, in the summary account of a square-rigged, seventeenth-century merchant ship tossed upon the seas. The Coming of the Mayflower in 1620 is a simple statement of observable facts, yet Wyeth’s impeccable genius as an illustrator imbues it with the bracing salt air and taste that captures the adventuresome spirit of the men and women who are largely credited with the founding of America. That spirit is carried on the wind and tautly billowed sails, the jaunty heeling of the ship at the nose of a stiff gale, the thrusting, streamed-limned clouds, and the gulls jauntily arranged to celebrate an arrival as they are the feathered angels of providence guiding it to safe harbor.<br><br>The Coming of the Mayflower in 1620 was based on two studies, a composition drawing in graphite and a small presentation painting. The finished mural appears to have been installed in 1941.

N.C. WYETH

In 1955, Sir John Rothenstein, representing the Trustees of the Tate Museum, approached Winston Churchill about donating one of his paintings "as a gift to the nation."  Churchill was flattered, but felt he did not deserve such an honor as an artist.  Eventually, Churchill agreed and sent two candidate paintings to the Tate – On the Rance and Loup River.  No record exists regarding his own thoughts on the works he submitted, but one can safely say that Churchill thought highly of On the Rance, especially since it was not one of the paintings Rothenstein identified as a strong option. Loup River, which clearly matched Rothenstein's taste, was selected.  Not only was On the Rance not returned, but somehow it ended up, without any inventory record, in a basement storeroom at the Tate. In the storeroom it sat for almost a half century, when it was discovered by an intern.  The Churchill family was notified and eventually the painting was auctioned in June 2005, where it set a new auction record for Churchill's work, despite the lot notes hardly touching on the Tate’s possible acquisition. In a letter to the buyers, Churchill’s daughter, Lady Soames, summarized what had occurred in somewhat more detail.<br><br>St. Malo is a walled city in Brittany, France on the coast of the English Channel. The city was nearly destroyed by bombings during WWII.

SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL (EN)

Trained as a woodcarver, Emil Nolde was almost 30 years old before he made his first paintings. The early paintings resembled his drawings and woodcuts: grotesque figures with bold lines and strong contrasts. The style was new, and it inspired the nascent movement Die Brücke (The Bridge), whose members invited Nolde to join them in 1906.  But, it was not until the garden became his locus operandi by 1915 that he built upon his mastery of contrasting luminosities to focus on color as the supreme means of expression.  Later, Nolde claimed “color is strength, strength is life,” and he could not have better characterized why his flower paintings reinvigorate our perception of color.<br><br>Much of the strength of Nolde’s dramatic, Wagnerian-like color sensibilities is the effect of staging primary colors, such as the deep reds and golden yellows of Sonnenblumen, Abend II, against a somber palette. The contrast highlights and deepens the luminosity of the flowers, not just visually, but emotionally as well. In 1937, when Nolde’s art was rejected, confiscated, and defiled, his paintings were paraded as “degenerate art” throughout Nazi Germany in dimly lit galleries. Despite that treatment, Nolde’s status as a degenerate artist gave his art more breathing space because he seized the opportunity to produce more than 1,300 watercolors, which he called “unpainted pictures.” No novice in handling watercolor, his free-flowing style of painting had been a hallmark of his highly-charge, transparent washes since 1918. Sonnenblumen, Abend II, painted in 1944, is a rare wartime oil. He let his imagination run wild with this work, and his utilization of wet-on-wet techniques heightened the drama of each petal.<br><br>Nolde’s intense preoccupation with color and flowers, particularly sunflowers, reflects his continuing devotion to van Gogh.  He was aware of van Gogh as early as 1899 and, during the 1920s and early 1930s, visited several exhibitions of the Dutch artist’s work.  They shared a profound love of nature. Nolde’s dedication to expression and the symbolic use of color found fullness in the sunflower subject, and it became a personal symbol for him, as it did for Van Gogh.

EMIL NOLDE

An outstanding example of Churchill’s North African scenes, one in which he deftly captures the scenery and light that his artistic mentor, John Lavery, had told him about in the mid 1930s.  Another artist mentor, Walter Sickert, taught Churchill how to project photo images directly on to a canvas as an aid in painting, a technique used to advantage in this instance.  The Studio Archives at Chartwell include 5 photographs, one of the camel and four others, that Churchill used as aids.<br><br>With the visual aids, Churchill could focus on the vibrant colors, the tan of the sand and buildings contrasting with the brilliant blue skies, splashes of green adding energy to the painting. A different Marrakech scene, “Tower of the Koutoubia Mosque”, set an auction record for Churchill when it sold in 2021 for $11 million USD.

SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL (EN)

Tom Wesselmann was a leader of the Pop Art movement. He is best remembered for large-scale works, including his Great American Nude series, in which Wesselmann combined sensual imagery with everyday objects depicted in bold and vibrant colors. As he developed in his practice, Wesselmann grew beyond the traditional canvas format and began creating shaped canvases and aluminum cut-outs that often functioned as sculptural drawings. Continuing his interest in playing with scale, Wesselmann began focusing more closely on the body parts that make up his nudes. He created his Mouth series and his Bedroom series in which particular elements, rather than the entire sitter, become the focus.<br> <br>Bedroom Breast (2004) combines these techniques, using vivid hues painted on cut-out aluminum. The work was a special commission for a private collector's residence, and the idea of a bedroom breast piece in oil on 3-D cut-out aluminum was one Wesselmann had been working with for many years prior to this work's creation. The current owner of the piece believed in Wesselmann's vision and loved the idea of bringing the subject to his home.<br><br>It's one of, if not the last, piece Wesselmann completed before he passed away. The present work is the only piece of its kind - there has never been an oil on aluminum in 3D at this scale or of this iconography.  

TOM WESSELMANN

En 1945, alors que la guerre est terminée et que Churchill a subi une défaite surprenante aux élections générales, il accepte l'invitation du maréchal Sir Harold Alexander à le rejoindre dans sa villa italienne sur les rives du lac de Côme. Churchill profite de la généreuse hospitalité de son hôte et concentre son attention et son énergie à immortaliser la région sur la toile. Il a produit quinze tableaux qui illustrent la façon dont la peinture absorbait son attention et lui offrait un élixir qui l'aidait à se ressourcer. Cette peinture emblématique a fait l'objet d'un article dans LIFE en janvier 1946 et a été sélectionnée comme illustration en couleur dans plusieurs éditions du livre de Churchill, Paintings as a Pastime.

SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL (EN)

Au début des années 1870, Winslow Homer a souvent peint des scènes de la vie à la campagne près d'un petit hameau agricole réputé depuis des générations pour ses remarquables champs de blé, situé entre la rivière Hudson et les Catskills, dans l'État de New York. Aujourd'hui, Hurley est bien plus célèbre pour avoir inspiré l'une des plus grandes œuvres d'Homer, Snap the Whip, peinte au cours de l'été 1872. Parmi les nombreuses autres peintures inspirées par la région, Girl Standing in the Wheatfield est riche en sentiments, mais sans sentimentalisme excessif. Elle est directement liée à une étude peinte en France en 1866 et intitulée In the Wheatfields (Dans les champs de blé), ainsi qu'à une autre étude peinte l'année suivante, après son retour en Amérique. Mais Homère aurait sans doute été le plus fier de celle-ci. Il s'agit d'un portrait, d'une étude de costume, d'une peinture de genre dans la grande tradition de la peinture pastorale européenne, et d'un tour de force atmosphérique dramatiquement rétro-éclairé, imprégné de la lumière de l'heure qui s'estompe rapidement, avec des notes lambda et fleuries et des touches d'épis de blé. En 1874, Homer a envoyé quatre tableaux à l'exposition de la National Academy of Design. L'une d'entre elles était intitulée "Girl". Ne serait-ce pas celle-ci ?

WINSLOW HOMER

Emerging at the end of the Gilded Age, N.C. Wyeth was one of the most important American artists and illustrators. His paintings and illustrations brought life to classic literature from Treasure Island to The Boy’s King Arthur and more. He is most remembered for his ability to capture crucial moments in narratives, fleshing out just a few words into a visual representation of deep drama and tension. Patriarch of the Wyeth artistic dynasty which includes his son Andrew and grandson Jamie, his influence touched future illustrators and artists.<br><br>Perhaps his most important legacy is how he shaped American imagination – of America itself and of wild possibilities. Wyeth’s powerful paintings gave life to many of the stories America told of itself. His early paintings captured life of the American West and some of his most beloved illustrations were for novels such as The Last of the Mohicans or short stories like “Rip Van Winkle”. Despite this success, Wyeth struggled with the commercialism of illustrations and advertisements, seeking his work to be accepted as fine art. Throughout his career, he experimented with different styles shifting from Impressionism to Divisionism to Regionalism.<br><br>N.C. Wyeth produced over 3,000 paintings and illustrated 112 books. His illustrations for the publisher Charles Scribner’s Sons were so popular they became known as Scribner’s Classics and remain in print to this day.<br><br>This quietly powerful painting of a Native American forms part of a quartet of paintings, inspired by and a metaphor for the four seasons. The paintings were used to illustrate George T. Marsh’s set of poems “The Moods”. Wyeth recognized that the series came at a crucial moment in his career in which the paintings go beyond realism to capture atmosphere and mood, an internal world of emotion made external. He even contemplated and attempted to write his own poems based on these paintings.<br> <br><br>Summer, Hush is a striking example of Wyeth pulling from his imagination and melding it with careful observation of nature. As noted in a letter to his mother, Wyeth combined the fictional subject with natural effects as in the sky. Native Americans were a subject he returned to numerous times; these paintings reflect not only Wyeth’s fascination but also of America. As observed by art historian Krstine Ronan, Wyeth was part of a larger dialogue that developed around Native Americans, cementing a general Native American culture in the imagination of the United States. Thus, the painting operates on numerous levels simultaneously. How do we relate to this painting and its conception of the four seasons? How do we interpret Wyeth’s depiction of a Native American? What role do Native Americans play in America’s imagination?<br><br>We must also not forget that these works were first used to illustrate the poems of George T. Marsh. Marsh, a poet born in New York who often also wrote of the Canadian wilderness, provides subtle evocations of the seasons hinted at in the series title “The Moods”. This painting was used alongside “Hush,” which ends:<br><br>Are they runes of summers perished<br><br>That the fisher hears –and ceases—<br><br>Or the voice of one he cherished.<br><br>Within these few lines, Wyeth gives us a thoughtful and restrained painting that stirs from within. The poem and the painting avoid obvious clichés to represent the seasons. They develop a profound interpretation filled with sensitivity.<br><br>These paintings were important to Wyeth who hoped that “they may suggest to some architect the idea that such decorations would be appropriate in a library or capitol or some public building.” Summer, Hush demonstrates Wyeth’s control of color and composition so that small touches such as the ripples of water or the towering cloud that envelopes the figure are in service to sketch out the feeling of summer and of the poem. Through exploring this rich and complex painting, we are better able to appreciate NC Wyeth as an artist and the role this specific painting plays in the context of art history.

N.C. WYETH

Painted from an unusually high vantage, “Riviera Coast Scene” vividly conveys the formidable distance and breadth of the scene from the perch where he set his easel.  Interestingly, Paul Rafferty did not include this painting in his book Winston Churchill: Painting on the French Riviera, believing it could likely be a scene from the Italian Lake District, where Churchill also painted in the same time period.<br><br>Paintings by Churchill can function as a glimpse into his extensive travels and his colorful life. Churchill most likely painted “Riviera Coast Scene” during a holiday at Chateau de l’Horizon, home of Maxine Elliot, a friend of his mother. Elliot, originally from Rockland, Maine, was a successful actress and socialite.<br><br>Within this painting, we see the influence of the Impressionists who utilized unusual viewpoints, modeled after Japanese woodblock prints, but also evidence of their attempts to push the boundaries of the landscape genre

SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL (EN)

SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL - Vue sur le port de Cassis (C 333) - huile sur toile - 25 x 30 in.

SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL (EN)

Alexander Calder executed a surprising number of oil paintings during the second half of the 1940s and early 1950s. By this time, the shock of his 1930 visit to Mondrian’s studio, where he was impressed not by the paintings but by the environment, had developed into an artistic language of Calder’s own. So, as Calder was painting The Cross in 1948, he was already on the cusp of international recognition and on his way to winning the XX VI Venice Biennale’s grand prize for sculpture in 1952. Working on his paintings in concert with his sculptural practice, Calder approached both mediums with the same formal language and mastery of shape and color.<br><br>Calder was deeply intrigued by the unseen forces that keep objects in motion. Taking this interest from sculpture to canvas, we see that Calder built a sense of torque within The Cross by shifting its planes and balance. Using these elements, he created implied motion suggesting that the figure is pressing forward or even descending from the skies above. The Cross’s determined momentum is further amplified by details such as the subject’s emphatically outstretched arms, the fist-like curlicue vector on the left, and the silhouetted serpentine figure.<br><br>Calder also adopts a strong thread of poetic abandon throughout The Cross’s surface. It resonates with his good friend Miró’s hieratic and distinctly personal visual language, but it is all Calder in the effective animation of this painting’s various elements. No artist has earned more poetic license than Calder, and throughout his career, the artist remained convivially flexible in his understanding of form and composition. He even welcomed the myriad interpretations of others, writing in 1951, “That others grasp what I have in mind seems unessential, at least as long as they have something else in theirs.”<br><br>Either way, it is important to remember that The Cross was painted shortly after the upheaval of the Second World War and to some appears to be a sobering reflection of the time. Most of all, The Cross proves that Alexander Calder loaded his brush first to work out ideas about form, structure, relationships in space, and most importantly, movement.

ALEXANDRE CALDER

The frame of reference for Irish American Sean Scully’s signature blocks and stripes is vast. From Malevich’s central premise that geometry can provide the means for universal understanding to Rothko’s impassioned approach to color and rendering of the dramatic sublime, Scully learned how to condense the splendor of the natural world into simple modes of color, light, and composition. Born in Dublin in 1945 and London-raised, Scully was well-schooled in figurative drawing when he decided to catch the spirit of his lodestar, Henri Matisse, by visiting Morocco in 1969. He was captivated by the dazzling tessellated mosaics and richly dyed fabrics and began to paint grids and stipes of color. Subsequent adventures provided further inspiration as the play of intense light on the reflective surfaces of Mayan ruins and the ancient slabs of stone at Stonehenge brought the sensation of light, space, and geometric movement to Scully’s paintings. The ability to trace the impact of Scully’s travels throughout his paintings reaffirms the value of abstract art as a touchstone for real-life experience.<br><br><br>Painted in rich, deep hues and layered, nuanced surfaces, Grey Red is both poetic and full of muscular formalism. Scully appropriately refers to these elemental forms as ‘bricks,’ suggesting the formal calculations of an architect. As he explained, “these relationships that I see in the street doorways, in windows between buildings, and in the traces of structures that were once full of life, I take for my work. I use these colors and forms and put them together in a way that perhaps reminds you of something, though you’re not sure of that” (David Carrier, Sean Scully, 2004, pg. 98). His approach is organic, less formulaic; intuitive painter’s choices are layering one color upon another so that contrasting hues and colors vibrate with subliminal energy. Diebenkorn comes to mind in his pursuit of radiant light. But here, the radiant bands of terracotta red, gray, taupe, and black of Grey Red resonate with deep, smoldering energy and evoke far more affecting passion than you would think it could impart. As his good friend, Bono wrote, “Sean approaches the canvas like a kickboxer, a plasterer, a builder. The quality of painting screams of a life being lived.”

SEAN SCULLY (EN)

Le monde de Marc Chagall ne peut être contenu ou limité par les étiquettes que nous lui attachons. C'est un monde d'images et de significations qui forment leur propre discours splendidement mystique. Les Mariés sous le baldaquin a été entrepris alors que l'artiste entrait dans sa 90e année, un homme qui avait connu la tragédie et le conflit, mais qui n'avait jamais oublié les moments de plaisir de la vie. Ici, les délices rêveurs d'un mariage dans un village russe, avec ses arrangements de participants bien rodés, nous sont présentés avec un esprit si joyeux et une innocence si gaie qu'il est impossible de résister à son charme. En utilisant une émulsion dorée combinant l'huile et la gouache opaque à base d'eau, la chaleur, le bonheur et l'optimisme du positivisme habituel de Chagall sont enveloppés d'un éclat lumineux suggérant l'influence des icônes religieuses à feuilles d'or ou de la peinture du début de la Renaissance qui cherchait à donner l'impression d'une lumière divine ou d'une illumination spirituelle. L'utilisation d'une combinaison d'huile et de gouache peut s'avérer difficile. Mais ici, dans Les Mariés sous le baldaquin, Chagall l'utilise pour donner à la scène une qualité d'un autre monde, presque comme si elle venait de se matérialiser à partir de l'œil de son esprit. La finesse de sa texture donne l'impression que la lumière émane de l'œuvre elle-même et confère une qualité spectrale aux personnages qui flottent dans le ciel.

MARC CHAGALL

Located on the French Riviera between Nice and Monte Carlo, the Bay of Eze is renowned for its stunning location and spectacular views. As you can see on pages 80-81 of Rafferty's book, this painting skillfully captures the dizzying heights, set just west of Lou Sueil, the home of Jacques and Consuelo Balsan, close friends of Winston and Clementine.<br> <br>The painting manipulates perspective and depth, a nod to the dramatic shifts of artists including Monet and Cézanne, who challenged traditional vantage points of landscapes. The portrait (i.e. vertical) orientation of the canvas combined with the trees, and the rhyming coastline channels the viewer’s gaze. The perceived tilting of the water's plane imbues the painting with dynamic tension.

SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL (EN)

Shortly after arriving in Paris by April 1912, Marsden Hartley received an invitation. It had come from Gertrude Stein and what he saw at her 27 rue de Fleurus flat stunned him. Despite his presumptions and preparedness, “I had to get used to so much of everything all at once…a room full of staggering pictures, a room full of strangers and two remarkable looking women, Alice and Gertrude Stein…I went often I think after that on Saturday evenings — always thinking, in my reserved New England tone, ‘ how do people do things like that — let everyone in off the street to look at their pictures?… So one got to see a vast array of astounding pictures — all burning with life and new ideas — and as strange as the ideas seemed to be — all of them terrifically stimulating — a new kind of words for an old theme.” (Susan Elizabeth Ryan, The Autobiography of Marsden Hartley, pg. 77)<br><br>The repeated visits had a profound effect. Later that year, Hartley was clearly disappointed when Arthur B. Davies and Walt Kuhn chose two of his still-life paintings for the upcoming New York Armory show in February 1913. “He (Kuhn) speaks highly of them (but) I would not have chosen them myself chiefly because I am so interested at this time in the directly abstract things of the present. But Davies says that no American has done this kind of thing and they would (not) serve me and the exhibition best at this time.” (Correspondence, Marsden Hartley to Alfred Stieglitz, early November 1912) A month later, he announced his departure from formal representationalism in “favor of intuitive abstraction…a variety of expression I find to be closest to my temperament and ideals. It is not like anything here. It is not like Picasso, it is not like Kandinsky, not like any cubism. For want of a better name, subliminal or cosmic cubism.” (Correspondence, Marsden Hartley to Alfred Stieglitz, December 1912)<br><br>At the time, Hartley consumed Wassily Kandinsky’s recently published treatise Uber das Geistige in der Kunst (The Art of Spiritual Harmony) and Stieglitz followed the artist’s thoughts with great interest. For certain, they both embraced musical analogy as an opportunity for establishing a new visual language of abstraction. Their shared interest in the synergetic effects of music and art can be traced to at least 1909 when Hartley exhibited landscape paintings of Maine under titles such as “Songs of Autumn” and “Songs of Winter” at the 291 Gallery. The gravity of Hartley’s response to the treatise likely sparked Stieglitz’s determination to purchase Kandinsky’s seminal painting Improvisation no. 27 (Garden of Love II) at the Armory Show. As for Hartley, he announced to his niece his conviction that an aural/vision synesthetic pairing of art and music was a way forward for modern art. “Did you ever hear of anyone trying to paint music — or the equivalent of sound in color?…there is only one artist in Europe working on it (Wassily Kandinsky) and he is a pure theorist and his work is quite without feeling — whereas I work wholly from intuition and the subliminal.” (D. Cassidy, Painting the Musical City: Jazz and Cultural Identity in American Art, Washington, D.C., pg. 6)<br><br>In Paris, during 1912 and 1913 Hartley was inspired to create a series of six musically themed oil paintings, the first of which, Bach Preludes et Fugues, no. 1 (Musical Theme), incorporates strong Cubist elements as well as Kandinsky’s essential spirituality and synesthesia. Here, incorporating both elements seems particularly appropriate. Whereas Kandinsky’s concepts were inspired by Arnold Schoenberg’s twelve-tone method of composition whereby no note could be reused until the other eleven had been played, Hartley chose Bach’s highly structured, rigorously controlled twenty-four Preludes and Fugues from his Well-Tempered Clavier, each of which establishes an absolute tonality. The towering grid of Bach Preludes et Fugues, no. 1 suggests the formal structure of an organ, its pipes ever-rising under a high, vaulted church ceiling to which Hartley extends an invitation to stand within the lower portion of the picture plane amongst the triangular and circular ‘sound tesserae’ and absorb its essential sonority and deeply reverberating sound. All of it is cast with gradients of color that conjures an impression of Cézanne’s conceptual approach rather than Picasso’s, Analytic Cubism. Yet Bach Preludes et Fugues, no. 1, in its entirety suggests the formal structural of Picasso’s Maisons à Horta (Houses on the Hill, Horta de Ebro), one of the many Picasso paintings Gertrude Stein owned and presumably staged in her residence on the many occasions he came to visit.

MARSDEN HARTLEY

Tom Wesselmann will undoubtedly be remembered for associating his erotic themes with the colors of the American flag. But Wesselmann had considerable gifts as a draftsman, and the line was his principal preoccupation, first as a cartoonist and later as an ardent admirer of Matisse. That he also pioneered a method of turning drawings into laser-cut steel wall reliefs proved a revelation. He began to focus ever more on drawing for the sake of drawing, enchanted that the new medium could be lifted and held: “It really is like being able to pick up a delicate line drawing from the paper.”<br><br>The Steel Drawings caused both excitement and confusion in the art world. After acquiring one of the ground-breaking works in 1985, the Whitney Museum of American Art wrote Wesselmann wondering if it should be cataloged as a drawing or a sculpture. The work had caused such a stir that when Eric Fischl visited Wesselmann at his studio and saw steel-cut works for the first time, he remembered feeling jealous. He wanted to try it but dared not. It was clear: ‘Tom owned the technique completely.’<br><br>Wesselmann owed much of that technique to his year-long collaboration with metalwork fabricator Alfred Lippincott. Together, in 1984 they honed a method for cutting the steel with a laser that provided the precision he needed to show the spontaneity of his sketches. Wesselmann called it ‘the best year of my life’, elated at the results that he never fully achieved with aluminum that required each shape be hand-cut.  “I anticipated how exciting it would be for me to get a drawing back in steel. I could hold it in my hands. I could pick it up by the lines…it was so exciting…a kind of near ecstasy, anyway, but there’s really been something about the new work that grabbed me.”<br><br>Bedroom Brunette with Irises is a Steel Drawing masterwork that despite its uber-generous scale, utilizes tight cropping to provide an unimposing intimacy while maintaining a free and spontaneous quality. The figure’s outstretched arms and limbs and body intertwine with the petals and the interior elements providing a flowing investigative foray of black lines and white ‘drop out’ shapes provided by the wall. It recalls Matisse and any number of his reclining odalisque paintings. Wesselmann often tested monochromatic values to discover the extent to which color would transform his hybrid objects into newly developed Steel Drawing works and, in this case, continued with a color steel-cut version of the composition Bedroom Blonde with Irises (1987) and later still, in 1993 with a large-scale drawing in charcoal and pastel on paper.

TOM WESSELMANN

Frederick Frieseke is often regarded as the finest American Impressionist painter of the figure. Yet when he came to study at Académie Juilian in 1898, several les Nabis painters remained a lingering presence, and it was the rich, decorative patterns of Edouard Vuillard and Pierre Bonnard that served as the blueprint for his early success. That influence is clearly demonstrated in the unrestrained repetition of the voluminous, pleated, striped umbrellas of Afternoon at the Beach, a canvas mural installed in the opulent Hotel Shelburne dining room overlooking the Atlantic City Boardwalk. The unifying impact of that repetitive element imbues the setting with cloud-like loft within a color scheme, evoking Vuillard and the richness of a Gobelin tapestry, rather than the effect of sunlight and broken color that mark his more familiar paintings from the decade of 1910 to 1920.<br><br>Afternoon at the Beach was installed under the artist’s direction in February 1906. It remained on view for decades at the swanky hotel that enticed “Diamond Jim” James Buchanan Brady to pay one thousand dollars a week for permanent residence and was an unfading memory for throngs of well-heeled socialites, financiers, and notables from Irving Berlin to John Philip Sousa and Ethel Barrymore to Al Jolson. Undoubtedly, its presence high on the grand dining room wall contributed to the artist’s popularity and renown.<br><br>Today, we may look upon this long, frieze-like composition as a delightful fin-de-siécle costume study or an informative expose of Victorian mores as suggested by the separate spheres of gender groupings. But mostly, Afternoon at the Beachrecounts the artist’s unbridled delight and appreciation of women, here, expressed within familial, maternal, and social contexts. It is the subject and theme that brought Frieseke acclaim and awards on both sides of the Atlantic and which, to this day, endears him to the many who count him among the most beloved of American figurative painters.

FREDERICK CARL FRIESEKE

Painted while staying at Dunrobin Castle, the estate of the Duke of Sutherland, Churchill chose to set his easel behind a tree where he likely thought of it as a framing device, adding a layer of depth, creating a stronger sense of foreground, middle ground, and background, enhancing the three-dimensionality of the picture. Churchill painted at both Dunrobin as well as the Duke’s Sutton Place estate, later the home of John Paul Getty.<br><br>As Mary Soames describes it in her book, Winston Churchill, His Life as a Painter, “1921 had been a year of heavy personal tidings” for Churchill and his family, as he lost both his mother, Jennie Cornwallis-West, and his beloved child, Marigold, aged nearly four.  In a letter to his wife Clementine, Churchill wrote, “… Many tender thoughts, my darling one of you and yr sweet kittens.  Alas I keep on feeling the hurt of the Duckadilly [Marigold’s pet name].”  That Churchill chose to stay with the Duke and Duchess at Dunrobin just after Marigold’s death speaks to their close friendship and his fondness for the area, including Loch Choire. It is no surprise that Churchill gifted the painting to the Duke of Sutherland

SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL (EN)

Le Portrait de Sylvie Lacombe, peint par Théo van Rysselberghe en 1906, est un chef-d'œuvre classique réalisé par l'un des portraitistes les plus raffinés et les plus cohérents de son époque. La couleur est harmonieuse, le pinceau vigoureux et adapté à sa tâche matérielle, son corps et son visage sont vrais et révélateurs. La personne représentée est la fille de son grand ami, le peintre Georges Lacombe, qui a partagé une association étroite avec Gauguin et a été membre des Nabis avec les artistes Bonnard, Denis et Vuillard, entre autres. Si nous connaissons aujourd'hui Sylvie Lacombe, c'est grâce à l'habileté de Van Rysselberghe à rendre les subtiles expressions du visage et, par une observation minutieuse et un souci du détail, à donner un aperçu de son monde intérieur. Il a choisi un regard direct, ses yeux vers les vôtres, une alliance inéluctable entre le sujet et le spectateur, quelle que soit notre relation physique avec le tableau. Van Rysselberghe avait largement abandonné la technique pointilliste lorsqu'il a peint ce portrait. Mais il a continué à appliquer les principes de la théorie des couleurs en utilisant des teintes de rouge - roses et mauves - contre des verts pour créer une palette harmonieuse et améliorée de couleurs complémentaires à laquelle il a ajouté un accent fort pour attirer le regard - un nœud rouge intensément saturé posé de manière asymétrique sur le côté de sa tête.

THÉO VAN RYSSELBERGHE

The Pop Art Movement is notable for its rewriting of Art History and the idea of what could be considered a work of art. Larry Rivers association with Pop-Art and the New York School set him aside as one of the great American painters of the Post-War period.  <br><br>In addition to being a visual artist, Larry Rivers was a jazz saxophonist who studied at the Juilliard School of Music from 1945-1946. This painting's subject echoes the artists' interest in Jazz and the musical scene in New York City, particularly Greenwich Village and the Lower East Side.  <br><br>“Untitled” (1958) is notable bas the same owner has held it since the work was acquired directly from the artist several decades ago. This work is from the apex of the artists' career in New York and could comfortably hang in a museum's permanent collection.

RIVIÈRES LARGES

Still lifes like Oranges and Lemons (C 455) give us an insight to the rich and colorful life of Churchill, just as his landscapes and seascapes do. Churchill painted Oranges and Lemons at La Pausa. Churchill would often frequent La Pausa as the guest of his literary agent, Emery Reves and his wife, Wendy.  Reves purchased the home from Coco Chanel.  While other members of the Churchill family did not share his enthusiasm, Churchill and his daughter Sarah loved the place, which Churchill affectionately called “LaPausaland”.<br><br>To avoid painting outside on a chilly January morning, Wendy Reves arranged the fruit for Churchill to paint. Surrounded by the Reves’s superb collection of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist works, including a number of paintings by Paul Cézanne, Oranges and Lemons illuminates Churchill’s relationships and the influence of Cézanne, who he admired. The painting, like Churchill, has lived a colorful life, exhibited at both the 1959 Royal Academy of Art exhibition of his paintings and the 1965 New York World’s Fair.

SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL (EN)

Il n'est pas difficile de comprendre comment la brillante disposition en deux rangées de quatre lettres de Robert Indiana a pu contribuer à renforcer un mouvement au cours des années 1960. Il est né d'une exposition profondément ressentie à la religion et d'un ami et mentor, Ellsworth Kelly, dont le style dur et les couleurs sensuelles et non accentuées ont fait une impression durable. Mais comme Indiana l'a déclaré, c'est un moment de chance qui s'est produit lorsque "l'amour m'a mordu" et que le dessin lui est apparu net et précis. Indiana a bien sûr soumis le dessin à de nombreuses épreuves, puis le logo a commencé à apparaître un peu partout. Le message, qui se traduit le mieux par une sculpture, se trouve dans des villes du monde entier et a été traduit en plusieurs langues, notamment en italien, sous le nom de "Amor", dont le "O" est également incliné vers la droite. Mais au lieu d'être frappée par le pied du "L", cette version confère au "A" qui la surplombe un effet de vacillement magnifiquement mis en scène. Elle donne une impression nouvelle, mais non moins profonde, de l'amour et de sa nature émotionnellement chargée.  Dans les deux cas, le "O" incliné de Love confère de l'instabilité à un dessin par ailleurs stable, une projection profonde de la critique implicite d'Indiana de "la sentimentalité souvent creuse associée au mot, suggérant métaphoriquement un désir non partagé et une déception plutôt qu'une affection saccharine" (Robert Indiana's Best : A Mini Retrospective, New York Times, 24 mai 2018). La répétition, bien sûr, a la mauvaise habitude d'atténuer notre appréciation du génie de la simplicité et du design révolutionnaire. Tard dans sa vie, Indiana déplorait que "c'était une idée merveilleuse, mais aussi une terrible erreur. Elle est devenue trop populaire. Et il y a des gens qui n'aiment pas la popularité". Mais nous, habitants d'un monde en proie à la discorde et à la tourmente, nous vous remercions. "Love" et ses nombreuses versions nous rappellent avec force notre capacité à aimer, et c'est là notre meilleur espoir éternel d'un avenir meilleur.

ROBERT INDIANA (EN)

Uniquely among Winston Churchill’s known work, “Coastal Town on the Riviera” is in fact a double painting with the landscape on one side and an oil sketch on the other. The portrait sketch bears some resemblance to Viscountess Castlerosse who was a frequent guest in the same Rivera estates where Churchill visited. Churchill painted her in C 517 and C 518 and gives us a larger picture of the people who inhabited his world. <br><br>Of his approximately 550 works, the largest portion (about 150) were of the South of France, where Churchill could indulge in both the array of colors to apply to his canvas and in gambling, given the proximity of Monte Carlo.

SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL (EN)

Churchill counted as both a friend and political ally, Phillip Sassoon – one of Britain's great hosts, cousin of famed poet Siegfried Sassoon, and the man upon whom Noël Coward crowned "a phenomenon that will never recur”. Sassoon and his sister Sybil were among Winston and Clementine’s great friends.  As described by Lady Soames in her book, “Philip Sassoon was a man of charm and distinction, and he dispensed princely hospitality to a brilliant and varied circle of friends at his two country houses, Port Lympne and Trent Park.  He made a remarkable collection of works of art.  Winston received much help and encouragement from Sassoon, and painted many pictures of both his house and gardens.  One of the ways in which Winston taught himself to paint was by copying pictures he admired.  With his large and varied collection, Sir Philip was able to be of help in this way, too, and Winston studied and copied quite a number of his friend’s pictures.  Sassoon was a friend and patron of John Singer Sargent, and owned many of his works.  Winston admired several of these, and found them highly instructive; in 1926, [less than two years before this painting was created] Philip Sassoon wrote Winston this note, which accompanied a generous present and a helpful loan:<br><br>My dear Winston,<br><br>You have often admired the picture of John Lewis Brown of the two horsemen that hung at Trent, so I am sending it to you with my best wishes in the hope that you find a corner for it at Chartwell.  I am also sending th little Sargent picture wh you asked for.  He painted it when he was 18!”<br><br>One is struck by Sassoon’s generosity, and can see in later works how his close study of Sargent influenced Churchill.

SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL (EN)

SALOMON VAN RUYSDAEL - Paysage de dunes avec des personnages au repos et un couple à cheval, vue sur la cathédrale de Nimègue - huile sur toile - 26 1/2 x 41 1/2 in.

SALOMON VAN RUYSDAEL

JAN JOSEPHSZOON VAN GOYEN - Paysage de rivière avec un moulin à vent et une chapelle - huile sur panneau - 22 1/2 x 31 3/4 in.

JAN JOSEPHSZOON VAN GOYEN

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